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Gastroenterology and Hepatology

How to write a manuscript

The editorial board accepts original papers for publication, in particular from the area of clinical and experimental gastroenterology and hepatology, in Czech, Slovak and English. It also accepts the results of clinical studies, articles for post-graduate lifelong learning (continuing medical education CME), well-arranged articles about current topical problems, case studies, reports from congresses, reports from study stays abroad, book reviews, reports on the activities of professional gastroenterological and hepatological companies, reports about the jubilees of eminent personalities in the field and notifications about upcoming congresses and symposiums. It further publishes comments on papers from other journals, observations, opinions, discussions on interesting topics, personal messages and letters from the editors.
Manuscript preparation is based on the relevant CSN standards and the recommended procedure of the ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors).

Requirements for professional publications
The work shall include original scientific communications which are: original work, an overview, case reports and work of a postgraduate training nature. All of these forms of scientific text have their own specifics corresponding to the internal structure, which must be respected. An informed consent and/or ethics committee approval must be dealt with. Research involving laboratory animals must state that the project COMPLIED with the requirements for research involving laboratory animals and was approved by a pertinent committee for research involving laboratory animals. There are no requirements for structure of review papers and case studies, although it is recommended to start with an Introduction and further divide manuscripts into logical chapters.

1. Original work
A paper in which the author presents his/her findings gained from experimental or clinical studies. Original work is divided into these basic components: an introduction, the patient set and methodology (materials and methods), results, discussion, conclusion and literature. The work is accompanied by a structured summary in Czech/Slovak and English (see below).
• a) The introduction serves as a basic introduction to the issue, and/or the reasons that led the author to carry out the work. It gives the hypothesis, which should be confirmed or refuted.
• b) The patient set and methodology (materials and methods) is the part that should provide basic information about the main characteristics of the patient set; in the case of experimental or theoretical studies, then also about the material the author evaluated. In the description of the method it is necessary to describe the procedure precisely (e.g. indications, treatment process, follow-up treatment) and an integral part of this part of the work is also the method of assessment, i.e. what and how the author assessed it.
• c) Results. This part of the original work must contain the facts found by the study, i.e. answers to the questions put in the previous section (set, methods).
• d) The discussion serves to analyse the results and compare them with the work of other authors dealing with the same issue.
• e) The conclusion summarises the study’s importance and states whether the objectives listed at the beginning were achieved or whether the original hypothesis is confirmed or refuted.
• f) The literature (see below in more detail).

5 to 10 pages of text and 20 to 30 citations are recommended for original work. No more than 6 authors.

2. A review article
A paper written by an experienced and well-known author in the issue at the request of the head editor or co-editor of the journal’s relevant section. The author’s opinion on the topic must be evident in the approach. The work gives an overview on the current situation in the chosen issue, including controversial opinions. It includes a list of the literature. The work should contain an unstructured summary in Czech/Slovak and English. A review article should have 5 to 10 pages of text, the literature should not exceed 30 citations. Number of authors 1, exceptionally 1–2 other co-workers.

3. Case report
A professional communication consisting of an introduction, a description of the case or cases, a discussion and a bibliography. It is accompanied by an unstructured summary in Czech/Slovak and English (see summaries). For a scientific work such as a case report the recommended scope is a maximum of 5 pages of text and 10–15 citations. The number of authors is 2 at most, for more workplaces 3.

4.  Work of a post-graduate nature (post-grad training, guidelines, current concept)
Texts of this type will be published at the behest of the head editor. Upon agreement with the author, they should include comprehensive processing of a basic issue in gastroenterology or hepatology, including developments in the given area, the current state and modern trends.  The bibliography is to contain both the cited literature and the recommended literature. It does not require a summary. The extent should be up to 10 pages of text.

The standard setting for the manuscript is 30 lines per page, double spacing, 2.5 cm margins.  The text should be processed using a standard text editor in the .doc or .rtf formats, recommended font Times New Roman, font size 12. Pages are numbered in the lower right corner.
The spacebar should not be used at all for formatting the document (!)  nor should every line be ended with Enter. When writing it is necessary to pay attention to confusing the letter ‘O’ with the number ‘0’, similarly the letter ‘l’ with the number ‘1’ , etc.; although these characters look similar in certain fonts, when changed into a different font these similarities cease to exist.

Cover page - contains the work’s name in Czech/Slovak and English (the name should be apt and brief due to searching - the editors reserve the right to shorten or edit the name upon agreement with the author), the authors’ names, the names of authors’ workplaces and a contact for the main author (full name incl. titles, workplace name, workplace address and mail address) The cover page must list all the financial resources used to carry out the work.
A summary - for each original work a structured summary is required in Czech or Slovak and English. It gives the reader a synopsis of the paper. The summary must not contain references to images and tables, the recommended range is 180–300 words.

The summary is divided into the following sections:
Introduction - briefly describe the work’s aims and state the hypothesis under investigation.
Methods - characterise the set monitored, how they were selected or excluded from the monitoring.  The characteristics and a description of the method used to tackle the issue, the assessment methodology, a description of the procedure.
Results - the results obtained including numerical values.
Discussion - a comparison of the results with the conclusions and results of other quoted authors.
Conclusions - the conclusions the author makes from the work, a summary of the most important points.
Key words - in Czech or Slovak and English, without using abbreviations, 3–8, at least 3 of those listed by Index Medicus

Image documentation - must be essentially original. The number of images should be in accordance with the scale of the work (at most up to 10 attachments).  In general images cannot be taken from other work published in a journal or book. The publication of non-original images is only possible after redrawing with the text: according to (name of the original image’s author). Use of images from other publications is only possible with the agreement of the copyright holder - mostly the original author and publisher (respecting copyright law).
Annexes numbered in the order in which they are quoted in the text. Images should be delivered in the requisite print quality with a minimum resolution of 600 dpi, and a minimum width of 1 500 pixels. Tables should be created using MS Word or MS Excel and delivered in this format (do not convert to a non-editable form of an image). Similarly graphs and charts should be delivered in editable form (MS Excel) including source data. Graphic files created using statistical programs (e.g. Statsoft STATISTICA and others) should be sent in normal vector formats (e.g. emf, wmf, svg, etc. ), DO NOT send them in the format MS Word!  Descriptions of images, graphs, tables, diagrams and photographs must be given in both Czech/Slovak and in English. If symbols, arrows, numbers or letters are used to describe part of an image, please explain them in the legend.
The text must contain references to any graphs, pictures, photos or tables in the following form: (Graph 1), (Fig. 1), (Tab. 1).

Bibliography - the literature is arranged in ascending numerical order, which must match the order of the quote in the text. The principle used is that authors quoted in the text must be listed in the bibliography and vice versa. Only work directly connected to the published work should be quoted. The manner of quoting literature must be in accordance with the standard ISO 690 and adapted to the format for citations in the MEDLINE/PubMED database (see examples).
All the authors are given up to three. If there is a larger number of authors, the first three are given followed by the abbreviation: ‘et al’. Abbreviations of journals must comply with internationally valid abbreviations. At the end of a quote give the pages and DOI number, if the paper has one. Work in press and/or sent for publication may be included in the list of citations. At least 1/3 of the citations should not be older than 5 years.
Citing of reviewed domestic literature is required. The editorial board recommends citing Czech and Slovak work dealing with the given topic. An overview of them is given by the database BMČ of the National Medical Library. Likewise the editorial board requests authors also quote papers published in the journal Gastroenterology and Hepatology. The citation rate of work from GH is a recognition of the journal’s professional level.

Citation format:
Original and review work:
Vočka M, Petruželka L. Zařazení režimu FOLFIRINOX do algoritmu léčby metastazujícího karcinomu slinivky břišní – první zkušenosti. Gastroent Hepatol 2014; 68(5): 436–440. doi: 10.14735/amgh2014436.
Chapters from books:
Adam Z, Tomíška M, Vorlíček J. Other primarily skin lymphomas. In: Adam Z, Vorlíček J. Hematologie II. 1st ed.  Praha: Grada Publishing 2001: 303–310.
Taylor SC, David JN. Acne and Rosacea: a closer look at skin of color. [online]. Available from: http: //

The editorial board accepts work electronically via the Open Journal System (OJS). The first author, who likewise submits a text for the peer review is responsible for the linguistic aspects of the work and becomes the editorial board’s contact person. The OJS is used to upload:
• the work with the bibliography in the aforementioned structure
• image documentation, additional annexes
• a structured summary for original works or a summary for reviews and case reports (Czech/Slovak and English), keywords are also a part of this (Czech/Slovak and English)
• The following are attached to original work:
• a declarations of the work’s originality and visual documentation confirmed by the authors in the OJS
Work sent will undergo a review process in terms of content and form. Work not meeting the journal’s criteria will be returned for reprocessing, if appropriate, completely rejected. The author will be informed by mail about rejecting or accepting the work. The editors correspond exclusively with the first, correspondent author.

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