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Gastroenterologie
a hepatologie

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Gastroent Hepatol 2021; 75(4): 286– 290. doi:10.48095/ccgh2021286.

SARS-CoV-2 infection and pancreatic disease

Petr Dítě Orcid.org  1,2, Lumír Kunovský3,4, Tomáš Kupka5,6, Jiří Dolina Orcid.org  7, Petr Jabandžiev8,9, Magdalena Uvírová10, Martin Blaho5, Michal Šenkyřík Orcid.org  7, Arnošt Martínek Orcid.org  5,11

+ Affiliation

Summary

SARS-CoV-2 is an etiological factor in several diseases that the WHO designated covid-19. Covid-19 infection may affect the digestive tract, including the pancreas. The main/most common symptoms of covid-19 include fever (71.6%), cough (68.9%) subjective feeling of shortness of breath (71.2%). The gastrointestinal symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting and/or diarrhea. The relationship of covid-19 and pancreas affection is not clearly described. A common finding is hyperlipasemia, eventually hyperamylasemia. Both conditions are usually associated with either no or minimal histomorphological changes, i.e. changes referred to as edematous glandular infiltration. Rarely, a necrotic form was reported. Nevertheless, the mortality of patients with acute pancreatitis who were covid-19 positive was higher than in covid-19 negative individuals. The available data indicate there is a link between covid-19 infection and the pancreas presenting as an acute disorder of the gland. SARS-CoV-2 impairment of both exocrine and endocrine function of the pancreas is multifactorial. It is debatable whether the involvement of the gland is directly related to the presence of the virus or whether it is an epiphenomenon. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2  (ACE-2) receptors, inflammatory changes (especially in pancreatic beta cells), together with high IL-18 levels, virus-induced lipotoxicity and immunological dysregulation play an important role in the induction of pancreatic damage. During the covid-19 pandemic, pancreatopathies represent a very lively topic and are being studied intensively.

Keywords

SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, chronic pancreatitis, pancreas, endoscopy

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