Anonymous User
Login / Registration

Gastroenterologie
a hepatologie

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Gastroent Hepatol 2017; 71(4): 325–332. doi:10.14735/amgh2017325.

Potential use of non-invasive methods for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

Michaela Fedelešová1, Viera Kupčová1, Mária Szántová1, Jozef Bulas2, Ladislav Turecký3

+ Affiliation

Summary

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a range of disorders including simple steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and progression to liver cirrhosis. It is the most frequent chronic liver disease worldwide. Its prevalence continues to rise and it is likely to become the most common indication for liver transplantation in the future. As this disease affects much of the population and liver biopsy is an invasive diagnostic tool, the development of non-invasive diagnostic and screening tools is needed. Markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, fibrogenesis, scoring models for detecting hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis are important for the diagnostics of NAFLD. As isolated biochemical parameters are not specific or sensitive enough to predict the presence of NASH and fibrosis, there is a tendency to use various markers and combine them into mathematical algorithms. Several predictive models and scoring systems have been developed. Current data suggest that panels of markers (NAFLD fibrosis score, FIB-4 score, and BARD score) are useful diagnostic modalities to minimize the number of liver biopsies. Imaging methods (ultrasound, transient elastography, real-time elastography, dynamic shear waves elastography, and acoustic radiation force impuls elastography) are important in the diagnostics of NAFLD. Actual tendencies of non-invasive diagnostics are constantly being discussed and their clinical applicability is being evaluated. The review summarizes current biochemical and imaging methods and concentrates on the evaluation of their diagnostic accuracies and suitability in clinical practice.

Keywords

fibrosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, non-invasive diagnosis, serological methods, steatosis

To read this article in full, please register for free on this website.

Benefits for subscribers

Benefits for logged users

Literature

1. Sanal MG. Biomarkers in nonalcoholic fat-ty liver disease-the emperor has no clothes? World J Gastroenterol 2015; 21 (11): 3223–3231. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i11.3223.
2. Speliotes EK, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Wu J et al. Genome-wide association analysis identifies variants associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that have distinct effects on metabolic traits. PLoS Genet 2011; 7 (3): e1001324. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001324.
3. Hagström H, Nasr P, Bottai M et al. Elevated serum ferritin is associated with increased mortality in NAFLD after 16 years of follow-up. Liver Int 2016; 36 (11): 1688–1695. doi: 10.1111/liv.13144.
4. Boyraz M, Cekmez F, Karaogu A et al. Serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin and RBP4 levels in obese and metabolic syndrome children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Biomark Med 2013; 7 (5): 737–745. doi: 10.2217/bmm.13.13.
5. Yoneda M, Uchiyama T, Kato S et al. Plasma Pentraxin3 is a novel marker for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). BMC Gastroenetrol 2008; 8: 53. doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-8-53.
6. Shen J, Chan HL, Wong GL et al. Assessment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease using serum total cell death and apoptosis markers. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012; 36 (11–12): 1057–1066. doi: 10.1111/ apt.12091.
7. Dvorak K, Stritesky J, Petrtyl J et al. Use of non-invasive parameters of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver fibrosis in daily practice – an exploratory case-control study. PloS One 2014; 9 (10): e111551. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111551.
8. Huang X, Xu M, Chen Y et al. Validation of the Fatty Liver Index for Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94 (40): e1682. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000001682.
9. Borman MA, Ladak F, Crotty P et al. The Fatty Liver Index has limited utility for the detection and quantification of hepatic steatosis in obese patients. Hepatol Int 2013; 7 (2): 592–599. doi: 10.1007/ s12072-012-9401-4.
10. Cuthbertson DJ, Weickert MO, Lythgoe D et al. External validation of the fatty liver index and lipid accumulation product indices, using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to identify hepatic steatosis in healthy controls and obese, insulin-resistant individuals. Eur J Endocrinol 2014; 171 (5): 561–569. doi: 10.1530/EJE-14-0112.
11. Lee JH, Kim D, Kim HJ et al. Hepatic steatosis index: a simple screening tool reflecting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Dig Liver Dis 2010; 42 (7): 503–508. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2009.08.002.
12. Wang J, Xu C, Xun Y et al. ZJU index: a novel model for predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in a Chinese population. Sci Rep 2015; 5: 16494. doi: 10.1038/srep16494.
13. Poynard T, Lassailly G, Diaz E et al. Performance of biomarkers FibroTest, ActiTest, SteatoTest, and NashTest in patients with severe obesity: meta analysis of individual patient data. PLoS One 2012; 7 (3): e30325. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.003 0325.
14. Raszeja-Wyszomirska J, Szymanik B, Ławniczak M et al. Validation in of the BARD scoring system in Polish patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). BMC Gastroenterol 2010; 10: 67. doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-10-67.
15. Angulo P, Hui JM, Marchesini G et al. The NAFLD fibrosis score: a noninvasive system that identifies liver fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Hepatology 2007; 45 (4): 846–854.
16. Demir M, Lang S, Schlattjan M et al. A new inexpensive and non-invasive scoring system to exclude advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. PLoS One 2013; 8 (3): e58360. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058360.
17. Miyaaki H, Ichikawa T, Nakao K et al. Clinicopathological study of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Japan: the risk factors for fibrosis. Liver Int 2008; 28 (4): 519–524.
18. Ratziu V, Giral P, Charlotte F et al. Liver fibrosis in overweight patients. Gastroenterology 2000; 118 (6): 1117–1123.
19. Guha IN, Parkes J, Roderick P et al.  Noninvasive markers of fibrosis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Validating the European Liver Fibrosis Panel and exploring simple markers. Hepatology 2008; 47 (2): 455–460.
20. Salvoza NC, Klinzing DC, Gopez-Cervantes J et al. Association of Circulating Serum miR-34a and miR-122 with Dyslipidemia among Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. PLoS One 2016; 11 (4): e0153497. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153497.
21. Koller T, Rác M. Neinvazívne, semiinvazívne a invazívne diagnostické modality v diagnostike portálnej hypertenzie a cirhózy na Slovensku. Gastronterol Prax 2015; 14 (1): 18–22.

Kreditovaný autodidaktický test