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Gastroenterologie
a hepatologie

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Gastroent Hepatol 2021; 75(2): 125–133. doi: 10.48095/ccgh2021125.

Non-invasive methods in the assessment of portal hypertension severity

Soňa Fraňková Orcid.org  1, Jan Šperl Orcid.org  1

+ Affiliation

Summary

Portal hypertension represents a wide spectrum of complications of chronic liver diseases and may present by ascites, oesophageal varices, splenomegaly, hypersplenism, hepatorenal and hepatopulmonary syndrome or portopulmonary hypertension. Portal hypertension and its severity predicts the patient‘s prognosis: as an invasive technique, the portosystemic gradient (HPVG – hepatic venous pressure gradient) measurement by hepatic veins catheterisation has remained the gold standard of its assessment. A reliable, non-invasive method to assess the severity of portal hypertension is of paramount importance; the patients with clinically significant portal hypertension have a high risk of variceal bleeding and higher mortality. Recently, non-invasive methods enabling the assessment of liver stiffness have been introduced into clinical practice in hepatology. Not only may these methods substitute for liver biopsy, but they may also be used to assess the degree of liver fibrosis and predict the severity of portal hypertension. Nowadays, we can use the quantitative elastography (transient elastography, point shear-wave elastrography, 2D-shear-wave elastography) or magnetic resonance imaging. We may also assess the severity of portal hypertension based on the non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis (i.e. ELF test) or estimate clinically signifi cant portal hypertension using composite scores (LSPS – liver spleen stiff ness score), based on liver stiffness value, spleen diameter and platelet count. Spleen stiffness measurement is a new method that needs further prospective studies. The review describes current possibilities of the non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension and its severity.

Keywords

HVPG, tuhost sleziny, tuhost jater, shear-wave elastografie, tranzientní elastografie, portal hypertension, krevní biomarkery

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