Is it possible to individualize discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy before preventive colonoscopy?
Jiří Cyrany1,2, Kateřina Hejcmanová3, Renata Chloupková4,5, Ondřej Ngo4,5, Ondřej Májek Orcid.org 3, Miroslav Zavoral Orcid.org 6, Štěpán Suchánek Orcid.org 6, Stanislav Rejchrt Orcid.org 1, Ilja Tachecí Orcid.org 7
1 II. interní gastroenterologická klinika LF UK a FN Hradec Králové
2 Interní oddělení, Oblastní nemocnice Jičín, a. s.
3 Institut biostatistiky a analýz LF MU, Brno
4 Ústav zdravotnických informací a statistiky ČR, Praha
5 Institut biostatistiky a analýz, LF MU, Brno
6 Interní klinika 1. LF UK a ÚVN – Vojenská fakultní nemocnice, Praha
7 II. interní klinika – gastroenterologie, LF UK a FN Hradec Králové
Background: Hot-snare polypectomy is a standard method for removal of polyps larger than 10 mm. It is recommended to discontinue anticoagulant therapy before this procedure to reduce a bleeding risk. In contrast, diagnostic colonoscopy and cold-snare polypectomy up to 10 mm are considered safe during uninterrupted anticoagulation therapy (with only omission of the direct oral anticoagulant therapy on the day of the procedure). The increasing number of anticoagulated individuals undergoing a colorectal cancer screening program leads to efforts to individualize the interruption of anticoagulation therapy. Aim: Estimation of probability that adenomatous polyp over 10 mm is detected during preventive colonoscopy in the Czech Republic in particular population groups according to gender and age. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from prospective database (Registry of Preventive Colonoscopies) covering screening colonoscopies and colonoscopies indicated for immunochemical faecal occult blood test positivity (FIT-positive). A distinction was made between adenoma polyps ≤10 mm and >10 mm. The patient was categorized according to the largest polyp diameter in case of detection of multiple polyps. Results: Between 2016 and 2020, 16,942 and 52,052 adenomatous polyps were found during 55,546 screenings and 119,229 FIT-positive colonoscopies, representing adenoma detection rate (ADR) of 31% and 44%, respectively. The estimate of probability of significant polyp detection (over 10 mm) and the need of hot-snare polypectomy ranged widely (2.3–21.6%) depending on age, sex and indication. It can be estimated to 7% in females and 5–10% in males undergoing screening colonoscopy. For colonoscopies indicated for positive stools for occult bleeding, this probability is approximately two to three times higher in FIT-positive colonoscopies: it exceeds 10% in woman over 60 years of age and is 15% and more in men of all ages (over 20% in men over 60 years of age). Conclusions: The decision to discontinue anticoagulation therapy prior to preventive colonoscopy can be individualized with respect to the indication (screening vs. FIT-positive), age and gender of examined person – we prefer to discontinue the anticoagulation therapy in FIT-positive people over 60 years and/or of male gender. The individual thromboembolic risk during interruption of anticoagulation therapy must be considered depending on the specific indication (e. g. CHA2DS2 VASc score in atrial fibrillation).
Keywordscolonoscopy, anticoagulant therapy, direct-acting oral anticoagulants, cancer screening, personalized medicine
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