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a hepatologie

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Gastroent Hepatol 2023; 77(4): 315–321. doi: 10.48095/ccgh2023315.

Changing epidemiology of Clostridioides difficile infection – increasing number of community-acquired forms and infections in children

Robert Rosoľanka  1, Martin Schnierer  2, Martin Sučík1, Katarína Šimeková1, Peter Bánovčin  3

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Clostridioides difficile colitis has long been considered an infection associated with hospitalization and concomitant antibiotic treatment. However, the increasing number of community cases in recent years has led to a reassessment of the traditional understanding of its epidemiological characteristics. In addition, community-associated forms have been reported many times in children, young adults, or people without comorbidities and with a negative history of antibiotic use in the pre-disease period. These groups have traditionally been considered low risk for the development of the infection. Thus, many studies have naturally investigated the impact of asymptomatic Clostridioides difficile carriers, including neonates and infants, on the transmission of the causative agent in the community. The prevalence of this bacterium in animals, in food and in the environmental setting has also been the subject of research. The goal was to elucidate the role of these factors in the spread of the agent in community settings. In this article, we summarize the current knowledge on confirmed and potential risk factors for community-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection, together with the results of studies examining patient characteristics. We also provide information on the issue of Clostridioides difficile infection in the paediatric population, which is closely intertwined with the community-acquired form of the infection.


asymptomatic carrier state, Clostridioides difficile, epidemiology, community-acquired infections

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