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Gastroenterologie
a hepatologie

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Gastroent Hepatol 2020; 74(1): 54–61. doi:10.14735/amgh202054.

Fecal microbiota transplantation – past, present, and future

Roman Stebel1, Lenka Vojtilová1, Petr Husa1

+ Affiliation

Summary

Distortions in intestinal microbial ecosystems are important pathogenetic factors of numerous diseases. The role of alterations in intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of recurrent clostridium colitis is well known. A fecal transfer from a healthy donor can restore natural homeostasis in intestinal microbiota and thus disrupt a „vicious circle“ of chronic relapsing clostridium infection. In the future, it should be possible to perform peroral fecal microbiota transplantations using enterosolvent tablets or commercially produced fecal derivatives. This administration route minimises the risk of adverse complications, which are rarely observed when fecal suspensions are administered via a nasoenteral probe, endoscopy, or by rectal clysma. In the past few years, intestinal microbiota transplantation has been used for the treatment of other diseases, the pathogenesis of which is probably associated with intestinal dysbiosis. In this respect, the most discussed issues are idiopathic intestinal inflammations, irritable bowel syndrome, liver encephalopathy and recently, „civilisation diseases“ such as diabetes mellitus type 2, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and metabolic syndrome. The fecal bacteriotherapy effect is observed also during the eradication of multi-resistant bacterial strains that colonise patients’ intestines. At present, fecal bacteriotherapy for recurrent clostridium colitis, as a proved medical method, is an accepted and world-wide recommended therapy. As for other diseases, this method is still in the experimental stage. Conclusive results of randomised control trials are expected.

Keywords

Clostridioides difficile, dysbiosis, fecal microbiota transplantation, microbial drug resistance, pseudomembranous colitis, intestinal microbiome

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