The role of pH impedance in patients with excessive supragastric belching
Michal Prokopič1, Martin Ďuriček2, Peter Bánovčin Jr2, Rudolf Hyrdel2
1 Interná klinika – gastroenterologická JLF UK a UN Martin
2 Interná klinika gastroenterologická JLF UK a UN Martin, Slovenská republika
Background: Excessive supragastric belching is is a functional esophageal disorder defined by the Rome IV criteria as frequent, repetitive, and bothersome belching from the esophagus that is sufficiently severe to affect usual activities. Some patients experience up to several hundred episodes of belching per day, which negatively affects their quality of life. Diagnosis is based on 24 hour multichannel, intraluminal impedance pH monitoring (24-MII-pH), which allows the gaseous bolus in the esophagus to be accurately followed. Patients and methods: A prospectively collected group of patients with excessive supragastric belching was retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristics, associated esophageal and non-esophageal symptoms, effect of treatment, and high-resolution manometry (HRM) and 24-MII-pH records were evaluated. Results: During the study period, we identified eight patients with excessive supragastric belching. The most common esophageal symptoms were regurgitation and heartburn followed by dysphagia and non-cardiac chest pain. The majority of patients exhibited a motility disorder on HRM characterized by ineffective esophageal motility or the absent contractility. The number of belches ranged from 15 to 250 per hour during the day, with within normal range in most patients during the night. The acid exposure time was increased in three patients. The number of reflux episodes was in the normal range for most patients. Proton pump inhibitors, prokinetics, and antireflux surgery did not improve belching or quality of life. Conclusion: Excessive supragastric belching is a functional disorder that can be diagnosed by 24-MII-pH monitoring based on clearly defined diagnostic criteria. Patients have refractory symptoms that significantly affect their quality of life and are resistant to conventional treatment. 24-MII-pH monitoring in conjunction with appropriate patient education significantly contributes to management of patients. At present, cognitive-behavioral therapy is the gold standard of treatment and leads to a significant improvement in quality of life.
Keywordselectric impedance, eructation, gastrooesophageal reflux, esophagus, manometry, esophageal motility disorders
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