Anonymous User
Login / Registration

Gastroenterologie
a hepatologie

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Gastroent Hepatol 2015; 69(3): 223–238. doi:10.14735/amgh2015223.

Recommendation of surgical treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases – part 2: Crohn̕s disease

Zuzana Šerclová, Ondřej Ryska, Martin Bortlík, Dana Ďuricová, Robert Gürlich, Pavel Lisý, Július Örhalmi, Pavel Kohout, Lucie Prokopová, Tomáš Douda, Pavel Drastich, Aleš Novotný, Petra Matějková, Karel Mareš, Olga Shonová, Luděk Hrdlička, Jana Koželuhová, Jiří Stehlík, Mojmír Kasalický, Jaroslav Kalvach, Jiří Bronský, Marie Tomanová, Martin Liberda, Přemysl Falt, Milan Lukáš, Vladimír Zbořil

Summary

Surgical treatment of Crohn´s disease is a part of care of patients primary treated by gastroenterologist. Understanding of surgical principles and indications to surgery improves the quality of care. Therefore, members of IBD Working group of Czech Society of Gastroenterology and Section of IBD Surgery of Czech Surgical Society created guidelines based on recent literature. These guidelines follow previously published 1st part: Preoperative preparation. Content of this article covers emergent and elective indication to surgery, site specific surgical procedures in Crohn´s disease, description of proper techniques and postoperative complications treatment.

Keywords

Crohn’s disease, surgical treatment, guidelines

Literature

1. Šerclová Z, Ryska O, Bortlík M et al. Doporučené postupy chirurgické léčby pacientů s nespecifickými střevními záněty – 1. část: předoperační příprava. Gastroent Hepatol 2015; 69 (1): 12–24. doi: 10.14735/amgh201512.
2. CEBM. Oxford Centre for Evidence‑based Medicine – Levels of Evidence (March 2009). Available from: http: www.cebm.net/oxford‑centre‑evidence‑based‑medicine‑levels‑evidence‑march‑2009/.
3. Dalkey N, Helmer O. An Experimental application of the Delphi method to the use of experts. Management Science 1963; 9 (3): 458–467.
4. Dignass A, Van Assche G, Lindsay J et al. European Crohn‘s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). The second European evidence‑based Consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn‘s disease: Current management. J Crohns Colitis 2010; 4 (1): 28–62. doi: 10.1016/j.crohns.2009.12.002.
5. Veroux M, Angriman I, Ruffolo C et al. A rare surgical complication of Crohn‘s diseases: free peritoneal perforation. Minerva Chir 2003; 58 (3): 351–354.
6. Werbin N, Haddad R, Greenberg R et al. Free perforation in Crohn‘s disease. Isr Med Assoc J 2003; 5 (3): 175–177.
7. Ikeuchi H, Yamamura T. Free perforation in Crohn‘s disease: review of the Japanese literature. J Gastroenterol 2002; 37 (12): 1020–1027.
8. Freeman HJ. Spontaneous free perforation of the small intestine in Crohn‘s disease. Can J Gastroenterol 2002; 16 (1): 23–27.
9. Eshuis EJ, Griffioen GH, Stokkers PC et al. Anti tumour necrosis factor as risk factor for free perforations in Crohn‘s disease? A case‑control study. Colorectal Dis 2012; 14 (5): 578–584. doi: 10.1111/j.1463‑1318.2011.02764.x.
10. Roy MK, Delicata RJ, Carey PD. Crohn‘s disease presenting with acute colonic perforation. Postgrad Med J 1997; 73 (864): 645–646.
11. Greenstein AJ, Sachar DB, Mann D et al. Spontaneous free perforation and perforated abscess in 30 patients with Crohn‘s disease. Ann Surg 1987; 205 (1): 72–76.
12. Greenstein AJ, Aufses AH Jr. Differences in pathogenesis, incidence and outcome of perforation in inflammatory bowel disease. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1985; 160 (1): 63–69.
13. Katz S, Schulman N, Levin L. Free perforation in Crohn‘s disease: a report of 33 cases and review of literature. Am J Gastroenterol 1986; 81 (1): 38–43.
14. Hattori Y, Kobayashi K, Katsumata T et al. Clinicopathologic features of Crohn‘s disease with free intestinal perforation. Hepatogastroenterology 2007; 54 (73): 135–139.
15. Cellini C, Safar B, Fleshman J. Surgical management of pyogenic complications of Crohn‘s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010; 16 (3): 512–517. doi: 10.1002/ibd.20984.
16. da Luz Moreira A, Stocchi L, Tan E et al. Outcomes of Crohn‘s disease presenting with abdominopelvic abscess. Dis Colon Rectum 2009; 52 (5): 906–912. doi: 10.1007/DCR.0b013e31819f27c3.
17. Fleshman JW. Pyogenic complications of Crohn‘s disease, evaluation, and management. J Gastrointest Surg 2008; 12 (12): 2160–2163. doi: 10.1007/s11605‑ 008‑0673‑x.
18. Wilson MZ, Connelly TM, Hollenbeak CS et al. Organ space infection following ileocolectomy for Crohn‘s disease: a National Surgical Quality Improvement Project study. Am J Surg 2014; 208 (5): 749–755. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2014.04.010.
19. Ananthakrishnan AN, Ashwin N,  McGinley E. Treatment of intra‑abdominal abscesses in Crohn’s disease: a nationwide analysis of patterns and outcomes of care. Dig Dis Sci 2013; 58 (7): 2013–2018. doi: 10.1007/s10620‑013‑2579‑z.
20. Feagins LA, Holubar SD, Kane SV et al. Current strategies in the management of intra‑abdominal abscesses in  Crohn‘s disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9 (10): 842–850. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2011.04.023.
21. Gutierrez A, Lee H, Sands BE. Outcome of surgical versus percutaneous drainage of abdominal and pelvic abscesses in Crohn‘s disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101 (10): 2283–2289.
22. Lee H, Kim YH, Kim JH et al. Nonsurgical treatment of abdominal or pelvic abscess in consecutive patients with Crohn‘s disease. Dig Liver Dis 2006; 38 (9): 659–664.
23. Poritz LS, Koltun WA. Percutaneous drainage and ileocolectomy for spontaneous intraabdominal abscess in Crohn‘s disease. J Gastrointest Surg 2007; 11 (2): 204–208.
24. Hokama A, Kinjo F, Tomiyama R et al. Mesenteric abscess in Crohn‘s disease. Gastrointest Endosc 2005; 62 (2): 306.
25. Müller‑Wille R, Iesalnieks I, Dornia C et al. Influence of percutaneous abscess drainage on severe postoperative septic complications in patients with Crohn‘s disease. Int J Colorectal Dis 2011; 26 (6): 769–774. doi: 10.1007/s00384‑011‑1135‑6.
26. Stewart D, Chao A, Kodner I et al. Subtotal colectomy for toxic and fulminant colitis in the era of immunosuppressive therapy. Colorectal Dis 2009; 11 (2): 184–190. doi: 10.1111/j.1463‑1318.2008.01579.x.
27. Hyman NH, Cataldo P, Osler T. Urgent subtotal colectomy for severe inflammatory bowel disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2005; 48 (1): 70–73.
28. Alves A, Panis Y, Bouhnik Y et al. Subtotal colectomy for severe acute colitis: a 20‑year experience of a tertiary care center with an aggressive and early surgical policy. J Am Coll Surg 2003; 197 (3): 379–85.
29. Brown SR, Haboubi N, Hampton J et al. ACPGBI. The management of acute severe colitis: ACPGBI position statement. Colorectal Dis 2008; 10 (Suppl 3): 8–29. doi: 10.1111/j.1463‑1318.2008.01682.x.
30. Tottrup A, Erichsen R, Svarke C et al. Thirty‑day mortality after elective and emergency total colectomy in Danish patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a population‑based nationwide cohort study. BMJ Open 2012; 2 (2): e000823. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen‑2012‑000823.
31. Butala P, Divino CM. Surgical aspects of fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis. Am J Surg 2010; 200 (1): 131–135. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2009.07.040.
32. Swan NC, Geoghegan JG, O‘Donoghue DP et al. Fulminant colitis in inflammatory bowel disease: detailed pathologic and clinical analysis. Dis Colon Rectum 1998; 41 (12): 1511–1515.
33. Greenstein AJ, Sachar DB, Gibas A et al. Outcome of toxic dilatation in ulcerative and Crohn‘s colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 1985; 7 (2): 137–143.
34. Weston LA, Roberts PL, Schoetz DJ Jr et al. Ileocolic resection for acute presentation of Crohn‘s disease of the ileum. Dis Colon Rectum 1996; 39 (8): 841–846.
35. Latella G, Cocco A, Angelucci E et al. Clinical course of Crohn‘s disease first diag- nosed at surgery for acute abdomen. Dig Liver Dis 2009; 41 (4): 269–276. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2008.09.010.
36. Fonkalsrud EW, Ament ME, Fleisher D. Management of the appendix in young patients with Crohn‘s disease. Arch Surg 1982; 117 (1): 11–14.
37. Oren R, Rachmilewitz D. Preoperative clues to Crohn‘s disease in suspected, acute appendicitis. Report of 12 cases and review of the literature. J Clin Gastroenterol 1992; 15 (4): 306–310.
38. Richards ML, Aberger FJ, Landercasper J. Granulomatous appendicitis: Crohn’s disease, atypical Crohn’s or not Crohn’s at all? J Am Coll Surg 1997; 185: 13–17.
39. Li G, Ren J, Wang G et al. Preoperative exclusive enteral nutrition reduces the postoperative septic complications of fistulizing Crohn‘s disease. Eur J Clin Nutr 2014; 68 (4): 441–446. doi: 10.1038/ejcn. 2014.16.
40. Li Y, Zuo L, Zhu W et al. Role of exclusive enteral nutrition in the preoperative optimization of patients with Crohn‘s disease following immunosuppressive therapy. Medicine (Baltimore) 2015; 94 (5): e478. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000478.
41. Huang W, Tang Y, Nong L et al. Risk factors for postoperative intra‑abdominal septic complications after surgery in  Crohn‘s disease: A meta‑analysis of observational studies. J Crohns Colitis 2015; 9 (3): 293–301. doi: 10.1093/ecco‑jcc/jju028.
42. Graadal O, Nygaard K. Crohn disease. Long‑term effects of surgical treatment. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen 1994; 114 (14): 1603–1605.
43. Nordgren SR, Fasth SB, Oresland TO et al. Long‑term follow‑up in Crohn’s disease. Mortality, morbidity, and functional status. Scand J Gastroenterol 1994; 29: 1122–1128.
44. Golovics PA, Lakatos L, Nagy A et al. Is early limited surgery associated with a more benign disease course in Crohn‘s disease? World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19 (43): 7701–7710. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i43.7701.
45. Belaiche J, Louis E, D‘Haens G et al. Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding in Crohn‘s disease: characteristics of a unique series of 34 patients. Belgian IBD Research Group. Am J Gastroenterol 1999; 94 (8): 2177–2181.
46. Pardi DS, Loftus EV Jr, Tremaine WJ et al. Acute major gastrointestinal hemorrhage in inflammatory bowel disease. Gastrointest Endosc 1999; 49 (2): 153–157.
47. Cirocco WC, Reilly JC, Rusin LC. Life‑threatening hemorrhage and exsanguination from Crohn‘s disease. Report of four cases. Dis Colon Rectum 1995; 38 (1): 85–95.
48. Kostka R, Lukas M. Massive, life‑threatening bleeding in Crohn‘s disease. Acta Chir Belg 2005; 105 (2): 168–174.
49. Veroux M, Angriman I, Ruffolo C et al. Severe gastrointestinal bleeding in Crohn‘s disease. Ann Ital Chir 2003; 74 (2): 213–215.
50. Driver CP, Anderson DN, Keenan RA. Massive intestinal bleeding in association with Crohn‘s disease. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1996; 41 (3): 152–154.
51. Robert JR, Sachar DB, Greenstein AJ. Severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage in Crohn‘s disease. Ann Surg 1991; 213 (3): 207–211.
52. Kocaman O, Aygün C, Konduk T et al. Infliximab treatment of massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding in gastroduodenal Crohn‘s disease. Turk J Gastroenterol 2008; 19 (3): 197–198.
53. Papi C, Gili L, Tarquini M et al. Infliximab for severe recurrent Crohn‘s disease presenting with massive gastrointestinal hemorrhage. J Clin Gastroenterol 2003; 36 (3): 238–241.
54. Bemelman WA, Ivenski M, van Hogezand RA et al. How effective is extensive nonsurgical treatment of patients with clinically active Crohn’s disease of the terminal ileum in preventiv surgery? Dig Surg 2001; 18: 56–60.
55. Farmer RG, Hawk WA, Turnbull RB Jr. Indications for surgery in Crohn’s disease:  analysis of 500 cases. Gastroeneterology 1976; 71: 245–250.
56. Lazarev M, Ullman T, Schraut WH et al. Small bowel resection rates in Crohn‘s disease and the indication for surgery over time: experience from a large tertiary care center. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2010; 16 (5): 830–835. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21118.
57. Siassi M, Weiger A, Hohenberger W e al. Changes in surgical therapy for Crohn‘s disease over 33 years: a prospective longitudinal study. Int J Colorectal Dis 2007; 22 (3): 319–324.
58. Levy C, Tremaine WJ. Management of internal fistulas in Crohn‘s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2002; 8 (2): 106–111.
59. Poritz LS, Rowe WA, Koltun WA. Remicade does not abolish the need for surgery in fistulizing Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45 (6): 771–775.
60. Melton GB, Stocchi L, Wick EC et al. Contemporary surgical management for ileosigmoid fistulas in Crohn‘s disease. J Gastrointest Surg 2009; 13 (5): 839–845. doi: 10.1007/s11605‑009‑0817‑7.
61. Young‑Fadok TM, Wolff BG, Meagher A et al. Surgical management of ileosigmoid fistulas in Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 1997; 40 (5): 558–561.
62. Gruner JS, Sehon JK, Johnson LW. Diagnosis and management of enterovesicalfistulas in patients with Crohn‘s disease. Am Surg 2002; 68 (8): 714–719.
63. Yamamoto T, Keighley MR. Enterovesical fistulas complicating Crohn‘s disease: clinicopathological features and management. Int J Colorectal Dis 2000; 15 (4): 211–215.
64. McNamara MJ, Fazio VW, Lavery IC  et al. Surgical treatment of enterovesical fistulas in Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 1990; 33 (4): 271–276.
65. von Roon AC, Reese G, Teare J et al. The risk of cancer in patients with Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50 (6): 839–855.
66. Maykel JA, Hagerman G, Mellgren AF  et al. Crohn’s colitis: the incidence of dysplasia and adenocarcinoma in surgical patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2006; 49 (7): 950–957.
67. Rubio CA, Kapraali M, Befrits R. Further studies on the frequency of colorectal cancer in Crohn‘s colitis: an 11‑year survey in the Northwest Stockholm County. Anticancer Res 2009; 29 (10): 4291–4295.
68. Canavan C, Abrams KR, Mayberry J. Meta‑analysis: colorectal and small bowel cancer risk in patients with Crohn‘s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23 (8): 1097–1104.
69. Jess T, Loftus EV Jr, Velayos FS et al. Incidence and prognosis of colorectal dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease: a population‑based study from Olmsted County, Minnesota. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2006; 12 (8): 669–676.
70. Lukas M. Inflammatory bowel disease as a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Dig Dis 2010; 28 (4–5): 619–624. doi: 10.1159/ 000320276.
71. Dyson JK, Rutter M D. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: what is the real magnitude of the risk? World J Gastroenterol 2012; 18 (29): 3839–3848. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i29.3839.
72. Anderesn NN, Jess T. Has the risk of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease decreased? World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19 (43): 7561–7568. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i43.7561.
73. Desai D, Desai N. Colorectal cancer surveillance in inflammatory bowel disease: a critical analysis. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2014; 6 (11): 541–548. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v6.i11.541.
74. Kim ER, Chang DK. Colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: the risk, pathogenesis, prevention and diagnosis. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20 (29): 9872–9881. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i29.9872.
75. Delaunoit T, Limburg PJ, Goldberg RM et al. Colorectal cancer prognosis among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4 (3): 335–342.
76. Khoury W, Lavery IC, Kiran RP. Effects of chronic immunosuppression on long‑term oncologic outcomes for colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgery. Ann Surg 2011; 253 (2): 323–327. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181fc9d36.
77. Ouaissi M, Maggiori L, Alves A et al. Colorectal cancer complicating inflammatory bowel disease: a comparative study of Crohn‘s disease vs ulcerative colitis in 34 patients. Colorectal Dis 2011; 13 (6): 684–688. doi: 10.1111/j.1463‑ 318.2010.02241.x.
78. Kiran RP, Khoury W, Church JM et al. Colorectal cancer complicating inflammatory bowel disease: similarities and differences between Crohn‘s and ulcerative colitis based on three decades of experience. Ann Surg 2010; 252 (2): 330–335. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181e61e69.
79. Yano Y, Matsui T, Uno H et al. Risks and clinical features of colorectal cancer complicating Crohn‘s disease in Japanese patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 23 (11): 1683–1688. doi: 10.1111/j.1440‑1746.2008.05532.x.
80. Kavanagh D, Carter M, Winter D et al. Management of colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Tech Coloproctol 2014; 18 (1): 23–28. doi: 10.1007/s10151‑013‑0981‑3.
81. Van Cutsem E, Nordlinger B, Cervantes A. Advanced colorectal cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for treatment. Ann Oncol 2010; 21 (Suppl 5): v93–v97. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdq222.
82. Kronberger IE, Graziadei IW, Vogel W. Small bowel adenocarcinoma in Crohn‘s disease: a case report and review of literature. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12 (8): 1317–1320.
83. Cahill C, Gordon PH, Boutros M. Small bowel adenocarcinoma and Crohn‘s disease: Any further ahead than 50 years ago? World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20 (33): 11486–11495. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i33. 11486.
84. Partridge SK, Hodin RA. Small bowel adenocarcinoma at a strictureplasty site in a patient with Crohn’s disease: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 2004; 47 (5): 778–781.
85. Jaskowiak NT, Michelassi F. Adenocarcinoma at a strictureplasty site in Crohn’s disease: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44 (2): 284–287.
86. Marchetti F, Fazio VW, Ozuner G. Adenocarcinoma arising from a strictureplasty site in Crohn’s disease. Report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 1996; 39 (11): 1315–1321.
87. Yamamoto T, Bain IM, Allan RN et al. An audit of strictureplasty for small‑bowel Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 1999; 42 (6): 797–803.
88. Poritz LS, Gagliano GA, McLeod RS et al. Surgical management of entero and colocutaneous fistulae in Crohn‘s disease: 17 year‘s experience. Int J Colorectal Dis 2004; 19 (5): 481–485.
89. Kim NK, Senagore AJ, Luchtefeld MA et al. Long‑term outcome after ileocecal resection for Crohn’s disease. Am Surg 1997; 63 (7): 627–633.
90. Cullen G, O‘toole A, Keegan D et al. Long‑term clinical results of ileocecal resection for Crohn‘s disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007; 13 (11): 1369–1373.
91. Prantera C. Indications for surgery in Crohn‘s disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1990; 85 (7): 900–901.
92. Shapiro M, Greenstein AJ, Byrn J et al. Surgical management and outcomes of patients with duodenal Crohn‘s disease. J Am Coll Surg 2008; 207 (1): 36–42. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2007.12.049.
93. Worsey MJ, Hull T, Ryland L et al. Strictureplasty is an effective option in the operative management of duodenal Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 1999; 42 (5): 596–600.
94. Yamamoto T, Bain IM, Connolly AB et al. Outcome of strictureplasty for duodenal Crohn‘s disease. Br J Surg 1999; 86 (2): 259–262.
95. Hassan C, Zullo A, De Francesco V et al. Systematic review: Endoscopic dilatation in Crohn‘s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 26 (11–12): 1457–1464.
96. Wibmer AG, Kroesen AJ, Gröne J et al. Comparison of strictureplasty and endoscopic balloon dilatation for stricturing Crohn‘s disease‑review of the literature. Int J Colorectal Dis 2010; 25 (10): 1149–1157. doi: 10.1007/s00384‑010‑1010‑x.
97. Stienecker K, Gleichmann D, Neumayer U et al. Long‑term results of endoscopic balloon dilatation of lower gastrointestinal tract strictures in Crohn‘s disease: a prospective study. World J Gastroenterol 2009; 15 (21): 2623–2627.
98. Romanko I, Bortlík M, Ďuricová D et al. Biologická léčba nemá vliv na výsledky endoskopické balónkové dilatace u pacientů s Crohnovou nemocí. Gastroent Hepatol 2015; 69 (1): 33–37. doi: 10.14735/amgh201533.
99. Bartels SA, Gardenbroek TJ, Bos L et al. Prolonged preoperative hospital stay is a risk factor for complications after emergency colectomy for severe colitis. Colorectal Dis 2013; 15 (11): 1392–1398. doi: 10.1111/codi.12328.
100. Martel P, Betton PO, Gallot D et al. Crohn’s colitis: experience with segmental resections; results in a series of 84 patients. J Am Coll Surg 2002; 194 (4): 448–453.
101. Prabhakar LP, Laramee C, Nelson H et al. Avoiding a stoma: role for segmental or abdominal colectomy in Crohn’s colitis. Dis Colon Rectum 1997; 40 (1): 71–78.
102. Fichera A, McCormack R, Rubin MA et al. Long‑term outcome of surgically treated Crohn‘s colitis: a prospective study. Dis Colon Rectum 2005; 48 (5): 963–969.
103. Yamazaki Y, Ribeiro MB, Sachar DB et al. Malignantcolorectal strictures in Crohn‘s disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86 (7): 882–885.
104. Andersson P, Olaison G, Hallböök O et al. Segmental resection or subtotal colectomy in Crohn’s colitis? Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45 (1): 47–53.
105. Tekkis PP, Purkayastha S, Lanitis S et al. A comparison of segmental vs subtotal/total colectomy for colonic Crohn‘s disease: a meta‑analysis. Colorectal Dis 2006; 8 (2): 82–90.
106. O‘Riordan JM, O‘Connor BI, Huang H et al. Long‑term outcome of colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis for Crohn‘s colitis. Dis Colon Rectum 2011; 54 (11): 1347–1354. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0b013e31822c9b2d.
107. Coscia M, Gentilini L, Laureti S et al. Risk of permanent stoma in extensive Crohn‘s colitis: the impact of biological drugs. Colorectal Dis 2013; 15 (9): 1115–1122. doi: 10.1111/codi.12249.
108. Maser EA, Sachar DB, Kruse D et al. High rates of metachronous colon cancer or dysplasia after segmental resection or subtotal colectomy in Crohn‘s colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013; 19 (9): 1827–1832. doi: 10.1097/MIB.0b013e318289c166.
109. Goligher JC. The long‑term results of excisional surgery for primary and recurrent Crohn‘s disease of the large intestine. Dis Colon Rectum 1985; 28 (1): 51–55.
110. Ilnyckyj A. Surgical treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases and pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 21 (5): 819–834.
111. Melton GB, Fazio VW, Kiran RP et al. Long‑term outcomes with ileal pouch‑anal anastomosis and Crohn‘s disease: pouch retention and implications of delayed diagnosis. Ann Surg 2008; 248 (4): 608–616. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e318187ed64.
111. Reese GE, Lovegrove RE, Tilney HS et al. The effect of Crohn‘s disease on outcomes after restorative proctocolectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50 (2): 239–250.
113. Regimbeau JM, Panis Y, Pocard M et al. Long‑term results of ileal pouch‑anal anastomosis for colorectal Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44 (6): 769–778.
114. Silverberg MS, Satsangi J, Ahmad T et al. Toward an integrated clinical, molecular and serological classification of inflammatory bowel disease: report of a Working Party of the 2005 Montreal World Congress of Gastroenterology. Can J Gastroenterol 2005; 19 (Suppl A): 5A–36A.
115. Sandborn WJ, Fazio VW, Feagan BG et al. AGA technical review on perianal Crohn’s disease. Gastroenterology 2003; 125 (5): 1508–1530.
116. Whiteford MH, Kilkenny J 3rd, Hyman N et al. Standards Practice Task Force; American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Practice parameters for the treatment of perianal abscess and fistula‑in‑ano (revised). Dis Colon Rectum 2005; 48 (7): 1337–1342.
117. Schwartz DA, Wiersema MJ, Dudiak KM et al. A comparison of endoscopic ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and exam under anesthesia for evaluation of Crohn‘s perianal fistulas. Gastroenterology 2001; 121 (5): 1064–1072.
118. Makowiec F, Jehle EC, Becker HD et al. Perianal abscess in Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 1997; 40 (4): 443–450.
119. Thornton M, Solomon MJ. Long‑term indwelling seton for complex anal fistulas in Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2005; 48 (3): 459–463.
120. Williams JG, Rothenberger DA, Ne- mer FD et al. Fistula‑in‑ano in Crohn’s disease. Results of aggressive surgical treatment. Dis Colon Rectum 1991; 34: 378–384.
121. Tanaka S, Matsuo K, Sasaki T et al. Clinical advantages of combined seton placement and infliximab maintenance therapy for perianal fistulizing Crohn‘s disease: when and how were the seton drains removed? Hepatogastroenterology 2010; 57 (97): 3–7.
122. Guidi L, Ratto C, Semeraro S et al. Combined therapy with infliximab and seton drainage for perianal fistulizing Crohn‘s disease with anal endosonographic monitoring: a single‑centre experience. Tech Coloproctol 2008; 12 (2): 111–117. doi: 10.1007/s10151‑008‑0411‑0.
123. Buchanan GN, Owen HA, Torkington J et al. Long‑term outcome following looseseton technique for external sphincter preservation in complex anal fistula. Br J Surg 2004; 91 (4): 476–480.
124. Nordgren S, Fasth S, Hultén L. Anal fistulas in Crohn‘s disease: incidence and outcome of surgical treatment. Int J Colorectal Dis 1992; 7 (4): 214–218.
125. Sangwan YP, Schoetz DJ Jr, Murray JJ et al. Perianal Crohn’s disease. Results of local surgical treatment. Dis Colon Rectum 1996; 39 (5): 529–535.
126. Sonoda T, Hull T, Piedmonte MR et al. Outcomes of primary repair of anorectal and rectovaginal fistulas using the endorectal advancement flap. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45 (12): 1622–1628.
127. Šerclová Z, Ryska O, Marvan J et al. Eradikace perianálních píštělí u IBD nemocných pomocí metody Advancement Flap a rizikové faktory neúspěšného hojení. Gastroent Hepatol 2015; 69 (1): 25–28. doi: 10.14735/amgh201525.
128. van der Hagen SJ, Baeten CG, Soeters PB et al. Staged mucosal advancement flap for the treatment of complex anal fistulas: pretreatment with noncutting Setons and in case of recurrent multiple abscesses a diverting stoma. Colorectal Dis 2005; 7 (5): 513–518.
129. Mizrahi N, Wexner SD, Zmora O et al. Endorectal advancement flap: are there predictors of failure? Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45 (12): 1616–1621.
130. Soltani A, Kaiser AM. Endorectal  advancement flap for cryptoglandular or Crohn‘s fistula‑in‑ano. Dis Colon Rectum 2010; 53 (4): 486–495. doi: 10.1007/ DCR.0b013e3181ce8b01.
131. Yassin NA, Hammond TM, Lunniss PJ et al. Ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract in the management of anal fistula. A systematic review. Colorectal Dis 2013; 15 (5): 527–535. doi: 10.1111/codi. 12224.
132. Sileri P, Giarratano G, Franceschilli L et al. Ligation of the Intersphincteric Fistula Tract (LIFT): A minimally invasive procedure for complex anal fistula: two‑year results of a prospective multicentric study. Surg Innov 2014; 21 (5): 476–480. doi: 10.1177/1553350613508018.
133. Campbell ML, Abboud EC, Dolberg ME. Treatment of refractory perianal fistulas with ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract: preliminary results. Am Surg 2013; 79 (7): 723–727.
134. Kleif J, Hagen K, Wille‑Jorgensen P. Acceptable results using plug for the treatment of complex anal fistulas. Dan Med Bull 2011; 58 (3): A4254.
135. Chung W. Outcomes of anal fistula surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Surg 2010; 199 (5): 609–613. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2010.01.007.
136. Mueller MH, Geis M, Glatzle J et al. Risk of fecal diversion in complicated perianal Crohn’s disease. J Gastrointest Surg 2007; 11 (4): 529–537.
137. Galandiuk S, Kimberling J, Al‑Mishlab TG et al. Perianal Crohn disease: predictors of need for permanent diversion. Ann Surg 2005; 241 (5): 796–801.
138. Thomas M, Bienkowski R, Vandermeer TJ et al. Malignant transformation in perianal fistulas of Crohn‘s disease: a systematic review of literature. J Gastrointest Surg 2010; 14 (1): 66–73. doi: 10.1007/s11605‑009‑1061‑x.
139. Dietz DW, Fazio VW, Laureti S et al. Strictureplasty in diffuse Crohn‘s jejunoileitis: safe and durable. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45 (6): 764–770.
140. Sampietro GM, Sartani A, Danelli P et al. Strictureplasty in the surgical treatment of complicated Crohn‘s disease. Ann Ital Chir 2003; 74 (6): 659–563.
141. Tichansky D, Cagir B, Yoo E et al. Strictureplasty for Crohn‘s disease: meta‑analysis. Dis Colon Rectum 2000; 43 (7): 911–919.
142. Yamamoto T, Fazio VW, Tekkis PP. Safety and efficacy of strictureplasty for Crohn‘s disease: a systematic review and meta‑analysis. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50 (11): 1968–1986.
143. Uchino M, Ikeuchi H, Matsuoka H et al. Long‑term efficacy of strictureplasty for Crohn‘s disease. Surg Today 2010; 40 (10): 949–953. doi: 10.1007/s00595‑009‑4162‑y.
144. Geltzeiler CB, Young JI, Diggs BS et al. Strictureplasty for treatment of Crohn‘s disease: an ACS‑NSQIP database analysis. J Gastrointest Surg 2015; 19 (5): 905–910. doi: 10.1007/s11605‑015‑2749‑8.
145. Borley NR, Mortensen NJ, Chaudry MA et al. Recurrence after abdominal surgery for Crohn‘s disease: relationship to disease site and surgical procedure. Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45 (3): 377–383.
146. Michelassi F, Upadhyay GA. Side‑to‑ -side isoperistaltic strictureplasty in the treatment of extensive Crohn‘s disease. J Surg Res 2004; 117 (1): 71–78.
147. Tonelli F, Fedi M, Paroli GM et al. Indications and results of side‑to‑side isoperistaltic strictureplasty in Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2004; 47 (4): 494–501.
148. Shatari T, Clark MA, Yamamoto T et al. Long strictureplasty is as safe and effective as short strictureplasty in small‑bowel  Crohn‘s disease. Colorectal Dis 2004; 6 (6): 438–441.
149. Poggioli G, Laureti S, Pierangeli F et al. A new model of strictureplasty for multiple and long stenoses in Crohn‘s ileitis: side‑to‑side diseased to disease‑free anastomosis. Dis Colon Rectum 2003; 46 (1): 127–130.
150. Fearnhead NS, Chowdhury R, Box B et al. Long‑term follow‑up of strictureplasty for Crohn‘s disease. Br J Surg 2006; 93 (4): 475–482.
151. Reese GE, Purkayastha S, Tilney HS et al. Strictureplasty vs resection in small bowel Crohn‘s disease: an evaluation of short‑term outcomes and recurrence. Colorectal Dis 2007; 9 (8): 686–694.
152. Menon AM, Mirza AH, Moolla S et al. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel arising from a previous strictureplasty for Crohn‘s disease: report of a case. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50 (2): 257–259.
153. Yamazaki Y, Ribeiro MB, Sachar DB et al. Malignant colorectal strictures in Crohn‘s disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1991; 86 (7): 882–885.
154. Ambe R, Campbell L, Cagir B. A comprehensive review of strictureplasty techniques in Crohn‘s disease: types, indications, comparisons, and safety. J Gastrointest Surg 2012; 16 (1): 209–217. doi: 10.1007/  s11605‑011‑1651‑2
155. Resegotti A, Astegiano M, Farina EC et al. Side‑to‑side stapled anastomosis strongly reduces anastomotic leak rates in Crohn‘s disease surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 2005; 48 (3): 464–468.
156. McLeod RS, Wolff BG, Ross S et al. Investigators of the CAST Trial. Recurrence of Crohn‘s disease after ileocolic resection is not affected by anastomotic type: results of a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Dis Colon Rectum 2009; 52 (5): 919–927. doi: 10.1007/DCR.0b013e3181a4fa58.
157. Scarpa M, Ruffolo C, Bertin E et al. Surgical predictors of recurrence of Crohn‘s disease after ileocolonic resection. Int J Colorectal Dis 2007; 22 (9): 1061–1069.
158. Scarpa M, Angriman I, Barollo M et al. Role of stapled and hand‑sewn anastomoses in recurrence of Crohn‘s disease. Hepatogastroenterology 2004; 51 (58): 1053–1057.
159. Simillis C, Purkayastha S, Yamamoto T et al. A meta‑analysis comparing conventional end‑to‑end anastomosis vs. other anastomotic configurations after resection in Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50 (10): 1674–1687.
160. Tonelli F, Fazi M, Di Martino C. Ileocecal strictureplasty for Crohn‘s disease: long‑term results and comparison with ileocecal resection. World J Surg 2010; 34 (12): 2860–2866. doi: 10.1007/s00268‑ 010‑0708‑9.
161. He X, Chen Z, Huang J et al. Stapled side‑to‑side anastomosis might be better than handsewn end‑to‑end anastomosis in ileocolic resection for Crohn‘s disease: a meta‑analysis. Dig Dis Sci 2014; 59 (7): 1544–1551. doi: 10.1007/s10620‑ 014‑3039‑0.
162. Fazio VW, Marchetti F, Church M et al. Effect of resection margins on the recurrence of Crohn‘s disease in the small bowel. A randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 1996; 224 (4): 563–571.
163. Botti F, Carrara A, Antonelli B et al. The minimal bowel resection in Crohn‘s disease: analysis of prognostic factors on the surgical recurrence. Ann Ital Chir 2003; 74 (6): 627–633.
164. Kotanagi H, Kramer K, Fazio VW et al. Do microscopic abnormalities at resection margins correlate with increased anastomotic recurrence in Crohn’s disease? Retrospective analysis of 100 cases. Dis Colon Rectum 1991; 34 (10): 909–916.
165. Hamilton SR, Boitnott JK, Morson BC. Relationships of disease extent and margin lengths to recurrence of Crohn’s disease after ileocolonic anastomosis. Gastroenterology 1981; 80: 1166.
166. Shental O, Tulchinsky H, Greenberg R et al. Positive histological inflammatory margins are associated with increased risk for intra‑abdominal septic complications in patients undergoing ileocolic resection for Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2012; 55 (11): 1125–1130. doi: 10.1097/ DCR.0b013e318267c74c.
167. Nguyen SQ, Teitelbaum E, Sabnis AA et al. Laparoscopic resection for Crohn’s disease: an experience with 335 cases. Surg Endosc 2009; 23 (10): 2380–2384. doi: 10.1007/s00464‑009‑0362‑1.
168. Milsom JW, Hammerhofer KA, Bohm B et al. Prospective, randomized trial comparing laparoscopic vs. conventional surgery for refractory ileocolic Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44 (1): 1–8.
169. Maartense S, Dunker MS, Slors JF et al. Laparoscopic‑assisted versus open ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease: a randomized trial. Ann Surg 2006; 243 (2): 143–149.
170. Maggiori L, Panis Y. Laparoscopy in Crohn‘s disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2014; 28 (1): 183–194. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2013.11.004.
171. Duepree HJ, Senagore AJ, Delaney CP et al. Does means of access affect the incidence of small bowel obstruction and ventral hernia after bowel resection? Laparoscopy versus laparotomy. J Am Coll Surg 2003; 197 (2): 177–181.
172. Angenete E, Jacobsson A, Gellerstedt M et al. Effect of laparoscopy on the risk of small‑bowel obstruction: a population‑based register study. Arch Surg 2012; 147 (4): 359–365. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.2012.31.
173. Goyer P, Alves A, Bretagnol F et al. Impact of complex Crohn’s disease on the outcome of laparoscopic ileocecal resection: a comparative clinical study in 124 patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2009; 52 (2): 205–210. doi: 10.1007/DCR.0b013e31819c9c08.
174. Dunker MS, Bemelman WA, Slors JF et al. Laparoscopic‑assisted vs open colectomy for severe acute colitis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): a retrospective study in 42 patients. Surg Endosc 2000; 14 (10): 911–914.
175. Marcello PW, Milsom JW, Wong SK et al. Laparoscopic total colectomy for acute colitis: a case‑control study. Dis Colon Rectum 2001; 44 (10): 1441–1445.
176. Seshadri PA, Poulin EC, Schlachta CM et al. Does a laparoscopic approach to total abdominal colectomy and proctocolectomy offer advantages? Surg Endosc 2001; 15 (8): 837–842.
177. Marceau C, Alves A, Ouaissi M et al. Laparoscopic subtotal colectomy for acute or severe colitis complicating inflammatory bowel disease: a case‑matched study in 88 patients. Surgery 2007; 141 (5): 640–644.
178. Telem DA, Vine AJ, Swain G et al. Laparoscopic subtotal colectomy for medically refractory ulcerative colitis: the time has come. Surg Endosc 2010; 24 (7): 1616–1620. doi: 10.1007/s00464‑009‑0819‑2.
179. Jess T, Riis L, Vind I et al. Changes in clinical characteristics, course, and prognosis of inflammatory bowel disease during the last 5 decades: a population‑based study from Copenhagen, Denmark. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007; 13 (4): 481–489.
180. Domenech E, Zabana Y, Garcia‑Planella E et al. Clinical outcome of newly diag- nosed Crohn‘s disease: a comparative, retrospective study before and after infliximab availability. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 31 (2): 233–239. doi: 10.1111/j.1365‑2036.2009.04170.x.
181. Cosnes J, Nion‑Larmurier I, Beaugerie L et al. Impact of the increasing use of immunosuppressants in Crohn‘s disease on the need for intestinal surgery. Gut 2005; 54 (2): 237–241.
182. Aratari A, Papi C, Leandro G et al. Early versus late surgery for ileo‑caecal Crohn‘s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 26 (10): 1303–1312.
183. Golovics PA, Lakatos L, Nagy A et al. Is early limited surgery associated with a more benign disease course in Crohn‘s disease? World J Gastroenterol 2013; 19 (43): 7701–7710. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i43.7701.
184. Eshuis EJ, Bemelman WA, van Bodegraven AA et al. Laparoscopic ileocolic resection versus infliximab treatment of distal ileitis in Crohn‘s disease: a randomized multicenter trial (LIR!C‑trial). BMC Surg 2008; 8: 15. doi: 10.1186/1471‑2482‑ 8‑15.
185. Iesalnieks I, Kilger A, Glass H et al. Intraabdominal septic complications following bowel resection for Crohnĺs disease: detrimental influence on long‑term outcome. Int J Colorectal Dis 2008; 23 (12): 1167–1174. doi: 10.1007/s00384‑008‑0534‑9.
186. Dindo D, Demartines N, Clavien PA. Classification of surgical complications: a new proposal with evaluation in a cohort of 6336 patients and results of a survey. Ann Surg 2004; 240 (2): 205–213.
187. Post S, Betzler M, von Ditfurth B et al. Risks of intestinal anastomoses in Crohn‘s disease. Ann Surg 1991; 213 (1): 37–42.
188. Yamamoto T, Allan RN, Keighley MR. Risk factors for intra‑abdominal sepsis after surgery in Crohn‘s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2000; 43 (8): 1141–1145.
189. Simi M, Leardi S, Minervini S et al. Early complications after surgery for  Crohn‘s disease. Neth J Surg 1990; 42 (4): 105–109.
190. Alves A, Panis Y, Bouhnik Y et al. Risk factors for intra‑abdominal septic complications after a first ileocecal resection for Crohnĺs disease: a multivariate analysis in 161 consecutive patients. Dis Colon Rectum 2007; 50: 331–336.
191. Büchler MW, Baer HU, Brügger LE et al. Surgical therapy of diffuse peritonitis: debridement and intraoperative extensive lavage. Chirurg 1997; 68 (8): 811–815.
192. Iesalnieks I, Kilger A, Kalisch B et al. Treatment of the anastomotic complications in patients with Crohn‘s disease. Int J Colorectal Dis 2011; 26 (2): 239–244. doi: 10.1007/s00384‑010‑1031‑5.
193. Ulrich AB, Seiler C, Rahbari N et al. Diverting stoma after low anterior resection: more arguments in favor. Dis Colon Rectum 2009; 52 (3): 412–418. doi: 10.1007/ DCR.0b013e318197e1b1.
194. Regueiro M, Kip KE, Schraut W et al. Crohn‘s disease activity index does not correlate with endoscopic recurrence one year after ileocolonic resection. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17 (1): 118–126. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21355.
195. Rutgeerts P, Geboes K, Vantrappen G et al. Predictability of the postoperative course of Crohn‘s disease. Gastroenterology 1990; 99 (4): 956–963.
196. Buisson A, Chevaux J‑B, Allen PB et al. Review article: the natural history of postoperative Crohn‘s disease recurrence. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012; 35 (6): 625–633. doi: 10.1111/j.1365‑2036.2012.05002.x.
197. Solberg IC, Vatn MH, Hoie O et al. Clinical course in Crohnĺs disease: results of a Norwegian population‑based ten‑year followup study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 5 (12): 1430–1438.
198. Peyrin‑Biroulet L, Harmsen WS, Tremaine WJ et al. Surgery in a population‑ -based cohort of Crohnĺs disease from  Olmsted County, Minnesota (1970– –2004). Am J Gastroenterol 2012;  107 (11): 1693–1701. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2012. 298.
199. Ferrante M, de Hertogh G, Hlavaty T et al. The value of myenteric plexitis to predict early postoperative Crohn‘s disease recurrence. Gastroenterology 2006; 130 (6): 1595–1606.
200. Love JR, Irvine EJ, Fedorak RN. Quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease. J Clin Gastroenterol 1992; 14 (1):  15–19.
201. Casellas F, Lopez‑Vivancos J, Badia X, et al. Impact of surgery for Crohn’s disease on health‑related quality of life. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95 (1): 177–182.
202. Cohen RD. The quality of life in patients with Crohn‘s disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16 (9): 1603–1609.
203. Delaney CP, Kiran RP, Senagore AJ et al. Quality of life improves within 30 days of surgery for Crohn‘s disease. J Am Coll Surg 2003; 196 (5): 714–721.
204. Thirlby RC, Sobrino MA, Randall JB. The long‑term benefit of surgery on health‑ -related quality of life in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Arch Surg 2001; 136 (5): 521–527.
205. Scarpa M, Ruffolo C, D‘Inca R et al. Health‑related quality of life after ileocolonic resection for Crohn‘s disease: long‑term results. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007; 13 (4): 462–469.
206. Thaler K, Dinnewitzer A, Oberwalder M et al. Assessment of long‑term quality of life after laparoscopic and open surgery for Crohn‘s disease. Colorectal Dis 2005; 7 (4): 375–381.
207. Kasparek MS, Glatzle J, Mueller MH et al. Postoperative complications have little influence on long‑term quality of life in Crohn‘s patients. J Gastrointest Surg 2008; 12 (3): 569–576.

Kreditovaný autodidaktický test