Nepřihlášený uživatel
přihlásit se / registrovat

Gastroenterologie
a hepatologie

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Gastroent Hepatol 2020; 74(3): 217–227. doi:10.14735/amgh2020217.

Perioperační ezofagogastroduodenoskopie v prevenci a terapii anastomotických komplikací – přehledový článek

Martin Stašek1, René Aujeský, Josef Chudáček2, Dušan Klos, Čestmír Neoral3, Radek Vrba1, Hamza Ahmad Khan1

+ Pracoviště

Souhrn

Současný rozvoj endoskopických a minimálně invazivních metod přináší nové modality pro řešení časných anastomotických komplikací v oblasti horního gastrointestinálního traktu. Cílem práce je souhrn současných vědomostí o endoskopických metodách a jejich poměru k chirurgickému řešení, timingu použití, alternativách postupu a výsledcích dosavadních studií. Hlavními diskutovanými modalitami jsou endoskopická vakuová terapie (EVAC), použití stentů a klipů, zejména over-the-scope varianty (OTSC). Významnou možností je intraoperační použití endoskopie a její využití v navigaci chirurgického výkonu a kombinované chirurgické a endoskopické terapii. Součástí práce je zhodnocení přínosu jednotlivých metod u komplikací ezofagogastrické a ezofagojejunální anastomózy a dále v bariatrické chirurgii (sleeve gastrektomie, gastrický bypass).

Klíčová slova

gastroskopie, vakuová terapie ran, bariatrické chirurgické výkony, samoexpandibilní metalický stent, anastomotický leak, klip

Článek je v angličtině, prosím přepněte si do anglické verze.

Pro přístup k článku se, prosím, registrujte.

Výhody pro předplatitele

Výhody pro přihlášené

Literatura

1. Takeshita N, Ho KY. Endoscopic closure for full-thickness gastrointestinal defects: available applications and emerging innovations. Clin Endosc 2016; 49 (5): 438–443. doi: 10.5946/ce.2016.104.

2. Winder JS, Pauli EM. Comprehensive management of full-thickness luminal defects: the next frontier of gastrointestinal endoscopy. World J Gastrointest Endosc 2015; 7 (8): 758–768. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v7.i8.758.

3. Goto T, Kawasaki K, Fujino Y et al. Evaluation of the mechanical strength and patency of functional end-to-end anastomoses. Surg Endosc 2007; 21 (9): 1508–1511. doi: 10.1007/s00464-006-9131-6.

4. Kawasaki K, Fujino Y, Kanemitsu K et al. Experimental evaluation of the mechanical strength of stapling techniques. Surg Endosc 2007; 21 (10): 1796–1799. doi: 10.1007/s00464-007-9265-1.

5. Causey MW, Fitzpatrick E, Carter P. Pressure tolerance of newly constructed staple lines in sleeve gastrectomy and duodenal switch. Am J Surg 2013; 205 (5): 571–575. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2012.12.008.

6. Haddad A, Tapazoglou N, Singh K et al. Role of intraoperative esophagogastroenteroscopy in minimizing gastrojejunostomy-related morbidity: experience with 2,311 laparoscopic gastric bypasses with linear stapler anastomosis. Obes Surg 2012; 22 (12): 1928–1933. doi: 10.1007/s11695-012-0757-2.

7. Bingham J, Lallemand M, Barron M et al. Routine intraoperative leak testing for sleeve gastrectomy: is the leak test full of hot air? Am J Surg; 211 (5): 943–947. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2016.02.002.

8. Bingham J, Kaufman J, Hata K et al. A multicenter study of routine versus selective intraoperative leak testing for sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2017; 13 (9): 1469–1475.

doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2017.05.022.

9. Varban OA, Cassidy RB, Sheetz KH et al. Technique or technology? Evaluating leaks after gastric bypass. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2016; 12 (2): 264–272. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2015.07.013.

10. Kanaji S, Ohyama M, Yasuda T et al. Can the intraoperative leak test prevent postoperative leakage of esophagojejunal anastomosis after total gastrectomy? Surg Today 2016; 46 (7): 815–820. doi: 10.1007/s00595-015-1243-y.

11. Urbanavičius L, Pattyn P, Van de Putte D et al. How to assess intestinal viability during surgery: a review of techniques. World J Gastrointest Surg 2011; 3 (5): 59–69. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v3.i5.59.

12. Degett TH, Andersen HS, Gögenur I. Indocyanine green fluorescence angiography for intraoperative assessment of gastrointestinal anastomotic perfusion: a systematic review of clinical trials. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2016; 401 (6): 767–775. doi: 10.1007/s00423-016-1400-9.

13. Servais EL, Rizk NP, Oliveira L et al. Real-time intraoperative detection of tissue hypoxia in gastrointestinal surgery by wireless pulse oximetry. Surg Endosc 2011; 25 (5): 1383–1389. doi: 10.1007/s00464-010-1372-8.

14. Anegg U, Lindenmann J, Maier A et al. Influence of route of gastric transposition on oxygen supply at cervical oesophagogastric anastomoses. Br J Surg 2008; 95 (3): 344–349. doi: 10.1002/bjs.5997.

15. Myers C, Mutafyan G, Petersen R et al. Real-time probe measurement of tissue oxygenation during gastrointestinal stapling: mucosal ischemia occurs and is not influenced by staple height. Surg Endosc 2009; 23 (10): 2345–2350. doi: 10.1007/s00464-009-0342-5.

16. Bludau M, Hölscher AH, Vallböhmer D et al. Ischemic conditioning of the gastric conduit prior to esophagectomy improves mucosal oxygen saturation. Ann Thorac Surg 2010; 90 (4): 1121–1126. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2010.06.003.

17. Lieto E, Orditura M, Castellano P et al. Endoscopic intraoperative anastomotic testing may avoid early gastrointestinal anastomotic complications. A prospective study. J Gastrointest Surg 2011; 15 (1): 145–152. doi: 10.1007/s11605-010-1371-z.

18. Ferreira LE, Song LM, Baron TH. Management of acute postoperative hemorrhage in the bariatric patient. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am 2011; 21 (2): 287–294. doi: 10.1016/j.giec.2011.02.002.

19. Kim KH, Kim MC, Jung GJ et al. Endoscopic treatment and risk factors of postoperative anastomotic bleeding after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Int J Surg 2012; 10 (10): 593–597. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2012.09.026.

20. Lee JG. What is the value of early endoscopy in upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 3 (10): 534–535. doi: 10.1038/ncpgasthep0609.

21. Mayer G, Lingenfelser T, Ell C. The role of endoscopy in early postoperative haemorrhage. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 18 (5): 799–807. doi: 10.1016/j.bpg.2004.06.002.

22. Jamil LH, Krause KR, Chengelis DL et al. Endoscopic management of early upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage following laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103 (1): 86–91. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2007.01588.x.

23. Parikh M, Issa R, McCrillis A et al. Surgical strategies that may decrease leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 9991 cases. Ann Surg 2013; 257 (2): 231–237. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e31826cc714.

24. Clavien PA, Barkun J, de Oliveira ML et al. The Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications: five-year experience. Ann Surg 2009; 250 (2): 187–196. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181b13ca2.

25. Mennigen R, Senninger N, Laukoetter MG. Novel treatment options for perforations of the upper gastrointestinal tract: endoscopic vacuum therapy and over-the scope clips. World J Gastroenterol 2014; 20 (24): 7767–7776. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i24.7767.

26. Carboni F, Valle M, Federici O et al. Esophagojejunal anastomosis leakage after total gastrectomy for esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma: options of treatment. J Gastrointest Oncol 2016; 7 (4): 515–522. doi: 10.21037/jgo.2016.06.02.

27. Schuchert MJ, Abbas G, Nason KS et al. Impact of anastomotic leak on outcomes after transhiatal esophagectomy. Surgery 2010; 148 (4): 831–840. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2010.07.034.

28. Wiggins T, Markar SR, Arya S et al. Anastomotic reinforcement with omentoplasty following gastrointestinal anastomosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Surg Oncol 2015; 24 (3): 181–186. doi: 10.1016/j.suronc.2015.06.011.

29. Sekhar N, Torquati A, Lutfi R et al. Endoscopic evaluation of the gastrojejunostomy in laparoscopic gastric bypass. A series of 340 patients without postoperative leak. Surg Endosc 2006; 20 (2): 199–201. doi: 10.1007/s00464-005-0118-5.

30. Shin RB. Intraoperative endoscopic test resulting in no postoperative leaks from the gastric pouch and gastrojejunal anastomosis in 366 laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (8): 1067–1069. doi: 10.1381/0960892041975613.

31. Mohos E, Schmaldients E, Richter D et al. Examination of the efficacy and safety of intraoperative gastroscopic testing of the gastrojejunal anastomosis in laparoscopic Roux Y gastric bypass surgery. Obes Surg 2011; 21 (10): 1592–1596. doi: 10.1007/s11695-011-0428-8.

32. Stašek M, Aujeský R, Vrba R et al. Indications and benefits of intraoperative esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne 2018; 13 (2): 164–175. doi: 10.5114/wiitm.2018.72740.

33. Slim R, Smayra T, Noun R. Biliary endoprosthesis in the management of gastric leak after sleeve gastrectomy. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2013; 9 (: 485–486. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2012.12.008.

34. Donatelli G, Dumont JL, Cereatti F et al. Endoscopic internal drainage as first-line treatment for fistula following gastrointestinal surgery: a case series. Endosc Int Open 2016; 04 (6): E647–E651. doi: 10.1055/s-0042-105206.

35. Soufron J. Leak or fistula after sleeve gastrectomy: treatment with pigtail drain by the rendezvous technique. Obes Surg 2015; 25 (10): 1979–1980. doi: 10.1007/s11695-015-1804-6.

36. Barreca M, Nagliati C, Jain VK et al. Combined endoscopic-laparoscopic T-tube insertion for the treatment of staple-line leak after sleeve gastrectomy: a simple and effective therapeutic option. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2015; 11 (2): 479–482. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2014.12.018.

37. Court I, Wilson A, Benotti P et al. T-tube gastrostomy as a novel approach for distal staple line disruption after sleeve gastrectomy for morbid obesity: case report and review of the literature. Obes Surg 2010; 20 (4): 519–522. doi: 10.1007/s11695-009-9898-3.

38. Chang J, Sharma G, Boules M et al. Endoscopic stents in the management of anastomotic complications after foregut surgery: new applications and techniques. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2016; 12 (7): 1373–1381. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2016.02.041.

39. Yimcharoen P, Heneghan HM, Tariq N et al. Endoscopic stent management of leaks and anastomotic strictures after foregut surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2011; 7 (5): 628–636. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2011.03.017.

40. Dasari BV, Neely D, Kennedy A et al. The role of esophageal stents in the management of esophageal anastomotic leaks and benign esophageal perforations. Ann Surg 2014; 259 (5): 852–860. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000000564.

41. El Hajj II, Imperiale TF, Rex DK et al. Treatment of esophageal leaks, fistulae, and perforations with temporary stents: evaluation of efficacy, adverse events, and factors associated with successful outcomes. Gastrointest Endosc 2014; 79 (4): 589–598. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2013.08.039.

42. Repici A, Rando G. Stent for nonmalignant leaks, perforations, and ruptures. Techniques Gastrointest Endosc 2010; 12 (4): 237–245. doi: 10.1016/j.tgie.2011.02.004.

43. van Boeckel PG, Sijbring A, Vleggaar FP et al. Systematic review: temporary stent placement for benign rupture or anastomotic leak of the oesophagus. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 33 (12): 1292–1301. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04663.x.

44. Freeman RK, Ascioti AJ, Giannini T et al. Analysis of unsuccessful esophageal stent placements for esophageal perforation, fistula, or anastomotic leak. Ann Thorac Surg 2012; 94 (3): 959–965. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2012.05.047.

45. Rodella L, Laterza E, De Manzoni G et al. Endoscopic clipping of anastomotic leakages in esophagogastric surgery. Endoscopy 1998; 30 (5): 453–456. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-1001307.

46. Dabizzi E, De Ceglie A, Kyanam Kabir Baig KR et al. Endoscopic „rescue“ treatment for gastrointestinal perforations, anastomotic dehiscence and fistula. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2016; 40 (1): 28–40. doi: 10.1016/j.clinre.2015.04.006.

47. Sandmann M, Heike M, Faehndrich M. Application of the OTSC system for the closure of fistulas, anastomosal leakages and perforations within the gastrointestinal tract. Z Gastroenterol 2011; 49 (8): 981–985. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1245972.

48. Haito-Chavez Y, Law JK, Kratt T et al. International multicenter experience with an over-the-scope clipping device for endoscopic management of GI defects (with video). Gastrointest Endosc 2014; 80 (4): 610–622. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2014.03.049.

49. Wedemeyer J, Schneider A, Manns MP et al. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure of upper intestinal anastomotic leaks. Gastrointest Endosc 2008; 67 (4): 708–711. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2007.10.064.

50. Loske G, Müller C. Vacuum therapy of an esophageal anastomotic leakage – a case report. Zentralbl Chir 2009; 134 (3): 267–270. doi: 10.1055/s-0028-1098764.

51. Schniewind B, Schafmayer C, Voehrs G et al. Endoscopic endoluminal vacuum therapy is superior to other regimens in managing anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy: a comparative retrospective study. Surg Endosc 2013; 27 (10): 3883–3890. doi: 10.1007/s00464-013-2998-0.

52. Brangewitz M, Voigtländer T, Helfritz FA et al. Endoscopic closure of esophageal intrathoracic leaks: stent versus endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure, a retrospective analysis. Endoscopy 2013; 45 (6): 433–438. doi: 10.1055/s-0032-1326435.

53. Dent B, Griffin SM, Jones R et al. Management and outcomes of anastomotic leaks after oesophagectomy. Br J Surg 2016; 103 (8): 1033–3038. doi: 10.1002/bjs.10175.

54. Lippert E, Klebl FH, Schweller F et al. Fibrin glue in the endoscopic treatment of fistulae and anastomotic leakages of the gastrointestinal tract. Int J Colorectal Dis 2011; 26 (3): 303–311. doi: 10.1007/s00384-010-1104-5.

55. Ribeiro MS, de Barros RA, Wallace MB. Vicryl patch and fibrin glue as treatment of an esophageal leak. Gastrointest Endosc 2015; 82 (2): 402. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2015.03.1910.

56. Crestanello JA, Deschamps C, Cassivi SD et al. Selective management of intrathoracic anastomotic leak after esophagectomy. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2005; 129 (2): 254–260. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2004.10.024.

57. Briel JW, Tamhankar AP, Hagen JA et al. Prevalence and risk factors for ischemia, leak, and stricture of esophageal anastomosis: gastric pull-up versus colon interposition. J Am Coll Surg 2004; 198 (4): 536–542. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2003.11.026.

58. Lerut T, Coosemans W, Decker G et al. Anastomotic complications after esophagectomy. Dig Surg 2002; 19 (2): 92–98. doi: 10.1159/000052018.

59. Nederlof N, de Jonge J, de Vringer T et al. Does routine endoscopy or contrast swallow study after esophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction change patient management? J Gastrointest Surg 2017; 21 (2): 251–258. doi: 10.1007/s11605-016-3268-y.

60. Kayani B, Jarral OA, Athanasiou T et al. Should oesophagectomy be performed with cervical or intrathoracic anastomosis? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2012; 14 (6): 821–827. doi: 10.1093/icvts/ivs036.

Kreditovaný autodidaktický test