Nepřihlášený uživatel
přihlásit se / registrovat

Gastroenterologie
a hepatologie

Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Gastroent Hepatol 2017; 71(6): 487–500. doi:10.14735/amgh2017487.

Evropská interdisciplinární doporučení k chirurgické léčbě metabolických onemocnění a obezity

Martin Fried, Volkan Yumuk, Jean-Michel Oppert, Nicola Scopinaro, Antonio Torres, Rudolf Weiner, Yuri Yashkov, Gema Frühbeck

Souhrn

V roce 2012 se v rámci internisticko-chirurgické pracovní skupiny před Evropským obezitologickým kongresem, konaným v roce 2013 v Liverpoolu, uskutečnilo jednání panelu odborníků, složeného z předsedů Evropské sekce Mezinárodní federace pro chirurgickou léčbu obezity (IFSO-EC), Evropské obezitologické společnosti (EASO), EASO Obesity Management Task Force (EASO OMTF) a dalších významných zástupců IFSO-EC a EASO, věnované tématu metabolické chirurgie. Podnětem k tomuto jednání byl mimořádný pokrok, kterého metabolická a bariatrická chirurgie dosáhla v uplynulém desetiletí. Účastníci se shodli na provedení revize a aktualizace Interdisciplinárních evropských závazných doporučení pro chirurgickou léčbu těžké obezity vydaných v roce 2008, zejména s ohledem na množství důkazů o antidiabetickém účinku a na změny v doporučených indikačních kritériích. Díky složení expertního panelu bylo možné obsáhnout všechny disciplíny, které jsou zásadní pro komplexní léčbu obezity a s obezitou spojených nemocí, s cílem aktualizovat klinická doporučení pro chirurgickou léčbu obezity a metabolických onemocnění na základě nejnovějších odborných zkušeností a poznatků založených na důkazech.

Klíčová slova

IFSO-EC, evropská doporučení, interdisciplinární, metabolická a bariatrická chirurgická léčba


Celý článek je dostupný po přepnutí na anglickou verzi webové stránky (v pravém horním rohu).

Literatura

1. Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ et al. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet 2011; 377 (9765): 557–567. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736 (10) 62037-5.
2. World Health Organization. Obesity. [online]. Available from: www.euro.who.int/ en/what-we-do/health-topics/noncom-municable-diseases/obesity.
3. World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight. [online]. Available from: www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/.
4. Frühbeck G, Toplak H, Woodward E et al. Obesity: the gateway to ill health – an EASO position statement on a rising public health, clinical and scientific challenge in Europe. Obes Facts 2013; 6 (2): 117–120. doi: 10.1159/000350627.
5. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK et al. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. JAMA 2012; 307 (5): 491–497. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.39.
6. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK et al. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. JAMA 2012; 307 (5): 483–490. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.40.
7. Kelly T, Yang W, Chen CS et al. Global burden of obesity in 2005 and projections to 2030. Int J Obes (London) 2008; 32 (9): 1431–1437. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2008.102.
8. Finkelstein EA, Trogdon JG, Cohen JW et al. Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: payer-and service-specific estimates. Health Aff (Millwood) 2009; 28 (5): w822–w831. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.5. w822.
9. Frühbeck G. Obesity: screening for the evident in obesity. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2012; 8 (10): 570–572. doi: 10.1038/nrendo.2012.165.
10. Sjöström L. Review of the key results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) trial – a prospective controlled intervention study of bariatric surgery. J Intern Med 2013; 273: 219–234. doi: 10.1111/joim.12012.
11. Berrington de Gonzalez A, Hartge P, Cerhan JR et al. Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J Med 2010; 363 (23): 2211–2219. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1000367.
12. Flegal KM, Kit BK, Orpana H et al. Association of all-cause mortality with overweight and obesity using standard body mass index categories: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2013; 309 (1): 71–82. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.113905.
13. Neovius M, Narbro K, Keating C et al. Health care use during 20 years following bariatric surgery. JAMA 2012; 308 (11): 1132–1141.
14. Fried M, Hainer V, Basdevant A et al. Interdisciplinary European guidelines on surgery of severe obesity. Obes Facts 2008; 1 (1): 52–59. doi: 10.1159/000113937.
15. Lehman center weight loss surgery expert panel. Commonwealth of Massachusetts Betsy Lehman center for patient safety and medical error reduction expert panel on weight loss surgery: executive report. Obes Res 2005; 13 (2): 205–226.
16. Sauerland S, Angrisani L, Belachew M et al. Obesity surgery: evidence-based guidelines of the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery (EAES). Surg Endosc 2005; 19 (2): 200–221.
17. Maggard MA, Shugarman ML, Suttorp M et al. Meta-analysis: surgical treatment of obesity. Ann Int Med 2005; 142 (7): 547–559.
18. Laville M, Romon M, Chavrier G et al. Recommendations regarding obesity surgery. Obes Surg 2005; 15 (10): 1476–1480.
19. Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB et al. AACE/TOS/ASMS Clinical practice guidelines for the perioperative nutritional, metabolic, and nonsurgical support of the bariatric surgery patient – 2013 update: cosponsored by American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, The Obesity Society, and American Society for Metabolic & Bariatric Surgery. Endocr Pract 2013; 19 (2): 337–372.
20. NIH Conference. Gastrointestinal surgery for severe obesity. Consensus development conference panel. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115 (12): 956–961.
21. Ridley N. Expert panel on weight loss surgery – executive report. Obes Res 2005; 13: 206–226.
22. Andersen T, Backer OG, Stokholm KH et al. Randomized trial of diet and gastroplasty compared with diet alone in morbid obesity. N Engl J Med 1984; 310 (6): 352–356.
23. Andersen T, Stokholm KH, Backer OG et al. Long term (5-year) results after either horizontal gastroplasty or very low-calorie diet for morbid obesity. Int J Obes 1988; 12 (4): 277–284.
24. Karason K, Lindroos AK, Stenlof K et al. Relief of cardiorespiratory symptoms and increased physical activity after surgically induced weight loss: results from the Swedish Obese Subjects study. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160 (12): 1797–1802.
25. Karlsson J, Sjöström L, Sullivan M. Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS): an intervention study of obesity. Two-year follow-up of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and eating behavior after gastric surgery for severe obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22 (2): 113–126.
26. Fernandez Jr AZ, Demaria EJ, Tichansky  DS et al. Multivariate analysis of risk factors for death following gastric bypass for treatmentof morbid obesity. Ann Surg 2004; 239 (5): 698–702.
27. Sjöström CD, Peltonen M, Wedel H et al. Differentiated long-term effects of intentional weight loss on diabetes and hypertension. Hypertension 2000; 36 (1): 20–25.
28. Sjöström CD, Lissner I, Wedel H et al. Reduction in incidence of diabetes, hypertension and lipid disturbances after intentional weight loss induced by bariatric surgery: the SOS Intervention Study. Obes Res 1999; 7 (5): 477–484.
29. Christou NV, Sampalis JS, Liberman M et al. Surgery decreases long-term mortal-ity, morbidity, and health care use in morbidly obese patients. Ann Surg 2004; 240 (3): 416–423.
30. Mun EC, Blackburn GL, Matthews JB. Current status of medical andsurgical therapy for obesity. Gastroenterology 2001; 120 (3): 669–681.
31. Flum DR, Dellinger E. Impact of gastric bypass on survival: a population-based analysis. J Am Coll Surg 2004; 199 (4): 543–551.
32. American College of Endocrinology (ACE), American Associationof Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE). AACE/ACE position statement on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of obesity. Jacksonville: American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists 1998.
33. American Society for Bariatric Surgery, Society of American Gastrointestinal  Endoscopic Surgeons. Guidelines for laparoscopic and open surgical treatment of morbid obesity. Obes Surg 2000; 10 (4): 378–379.
34. Douketis JD, Feightner JW, Attia J et al. Periodic health examination, 1999 update 1. Detection, prevention and treatment of obesity. CMAJ 1999; 160 (4): 513–525.
35. International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity. Statement onpatient selection for bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 1997; 7 (1): 41.
36. Lauterbach K, Westenhofer J, Wirth A et al. Evidenz-basierte Leitlinie zur Behandlung der Adipositas in Deutschland. Hauser: Köln 1998.
37. Msika S. Surgery for morbid obesity: 2. Complications. Results of a technologic evaluation by the ANAES. J Chir (Paris) 2003; 140 (1): 4–21.
38. National Institute for Clinical Excellence. Guidance on the use of surgery to aid weight reduction for people with morbid obesity (Technology appraisal No 46). London: National Institute for Clinical Excellence 2002.
39. Pontiroli AEW, Morabito A. Long-term prevention of mortality in morbid obesity through bariatric surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis of trials performed with gastric banding and gastric bypass. Ann Surg 2011; 253: 484–487. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e31820d98cb.
40. Buchwald H, Rudser KD, Williams SE et al. Overall mortality, incremental life expectancy, and cause of death at 25 years in the program on the surgical control of the hyperlipidemias. Ann Surg 2010; 251 (6): 1034–1040. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181 deb4d0.
41. Padwal R, Klarenbach S, Wiebe N et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials. Obes Rev 2011; 12: 602–621. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2011.00866.x.
42. Garb J, Welch G, Zagarins S et al. Bariatric surgery for the treatment of morbid obesity: a meta-analysis of weight loss outcomes for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic gastric bypass. Obes Surg 2009; 19 (10): 1447–1455. doi: 10.1007/s11695-009-9927-2.
43. Valezi AC, Mali Junior J, de Menezes MA et al. Weight loss outcome after silastic ring Roux-en-Y gastric by-pass: 8 years of follow-up. Obes Surg 2010; 20 (11): 1491–1495. doi: 10.1007/s11695-010-02 64-2.
44. Toouli J, Kow L, Ramos AC et al. International multicenter study of safety and effectiveness of Swedish Adjustable Gastric Band in 1-, 3-, and 5-year follow-up cohorts. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2009; 5 (5): 598–609. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2009.04. 012.
45. Buchwald H, Estok R, Fahrbach K et al. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systemic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med 2009; 122 (3): 248–256. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2008.09.041.
46. Hofsø D, Nordstrand N, Johnson LK et al. Obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors after weight loss: a clinical trial comparing gastric bypass surgery and intensive lifestyle intervention. Eur J Endocrinol 2010; 163: 735–745. doi: 10.1530/EJE-10-0514.
47. Hofsø D, Jenssen T, Bollerslev J et al. Beta cell function after weight loss: a clinical trial comparing gastric bypass surgery and intensive lifestyle intervention. Eur J Endocrinol 2011; 164 (2): 231–238. doi: 10. 1530/EJE-10-0804.
48. Dixon JB, O’Brien PE, Playfair J et al. Adjustable gastric banding and conventional therapy for type 2 diabetes. JAMA 2008; 299 (3): 316–323. doi: 10.1001/jama. 299.3.316.
49. Lee WJ, Chong K, Ser KH et al. Gastric bypass vs. sleeve gastrectomy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arch Surg 2011; 146 (2): 143–148. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.2010.326.
50. Lee WJ, Wang W, Lee YC et al. Effect of laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass for type 2 diabetes mellitus: comparison of BMI>35 and <35 kg/m2. J Gastrointest Surg 2008; 12 (5): 945–952.
51. Cohen RV, Pinheiro JC, Schiavon CA et al. Effects of gastric bypass surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes and only mild obesity. Diabetes Care 2012; 35 (7): 1420–1428. doi: 10.2337/dc11-2289.
52. Choi J, Digiorgi M, Milone L et al. Outcomes of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in patients with low body mass index. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2010; 6 (4): 367–371. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2009.09.021.
53. Serrot FJ, Dorman RB, Miller CJ et al. Comparative effectiveness of bariatric surgery and nonsurgical therapy in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus and body mass index <35 kg/m2. Surgery 2011; 150 (4): 684–691. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2011.07.069.
54. Fried M, Ribaric G, Buchwald JN et al. Metabolic surgery for thetreatment of type 2 diabetes in patients with BMI <35 kg/m2: an integrative review of early studies. Obes Surg 2010; 20 (6): 776–790. doi: 10.1007/s11695-010-0113-3.
55. Lee WJ, Chong K, Chen CY et al. Diabetes remission and insulin secretion after gastric bypass in patients with body mass index <35 kg/m2. Obes Surg 2011; 21 (7): 889–895. doi: 10.1007/s11695-011-0401-6.
56. Demaria EJ, Winegar DA, Pate VW et al. Early postoperative outcomes of metabolic surgery to treat diabetes from sites participating in the ASMBS bariatric surgery center of excellence program as reported in the Bariatric Outcomes Longitudinal Database. Ann Surg 2010; 252 (3): 559–566. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181f2aed0.
57. Lee WJ, Ser KH, Chong K et al. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy for diabetes treatment in nonmorbidly obese patients: efficacy and change of insulin secretion. Surgery 2010; 147 (5): 664–669. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2009.10.059.
58. Buse JB, Caprio S, Cefalu WT et al. How do we define cure of diabetes? Diabetes Care 2009; 32 (11): 2133–2135. doi: 10.2337/dc09-9036.
59. Maggard-Gibbons M, Maglione M, Livhits M et al. Bariatric surgery for weight loss and glycemic control in nonmorbidly obese adults with diabetes. JAMA 2013; 309 (21): 2250–2261. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.4851.
60. Ikramuddin S, Korner J, LeeW-J et al. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass vs intensive me-dical management for the control of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. JAMA 2013; 309 (21): 2240–2249. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.5835.
61. Apovian CM, Baker C, Ludwig DS et al. Best practice guidelines in pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery. Obes Res 2005; 13 (2): 274–282.
62. Inge TH, Krebs NF, Garcia VF et al. Bariatric surgery for severely overweight adolescents: concerns and recommendations. Pediatrics 2004; 114 (1): 217–223.
63. Sugerman HJ, Sugerman EL, DeMaria EJ et al. Bariatric surgery for severely obese adolescents. J Gastrointest Surg 2003; 7 (1): 102–107.
64. Dolan K, Creighton L, Hopkins G et al. Laparoscopic gastric banding in morbidly obese adolescents. Obes Surg 2003; 13 (1): 101–104.
65. Stanford A, Glascock JM, Eid GM et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese adolescents. J Pediatr Surg 2003; 38 (3): 430–433.
66. Widhalm K, Dietrich S, Prager G. Adjustable gastric banding surgery in morbidly obese adolescents: experiences with eight patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2004; 28 (Suppl 3): S42–S5.
67. Silberhummer GR, Miller K, Kriwanek S et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in adolescents: the Austrian experience. Obes Surg 2006; 16 (8): 1062–1067.
68. Capella JF, Capella RF. Bariatric surgery in adolescence. Is this the best age to operate? Obes Surg 2003; 13 (6): 826–832.
69. Patterson EJ, Urbach DR, Swanstrom LL. A comparison of diet and exercise therapy versus laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity: a decision analysis model. J Am Coll Surg 2003; 196 (3): 379–384.
70. Averbukh Y, Heshka S, El-Shoreya H et al. Depression score predicts weight loss following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg 2003; 13 (6): 833–836.
71. Ray EC, Nickels MW, Sayeed S et al. Predicting success after gastric bypass: the role of psychosocial and behavioral factors. Surgery 2003; 134 (4): 555–563.
72. Charles SC. Psychiatric evaluation of morbidly obese patients. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1987; 16 (3): 415–432.
73. Gertler R, Ramsey-Stewart G. Pre-operative psychiatric assessment of patients presenting for gastric bariatric surgery (surgical control of morbid obesity). Aust N Z J Surg 1986; 56 (2): 157–161.
74. Guisado JA, Vaz FJ, López-Ibor JJ et al. Gastric surgery and restraint from food as triggering factors of eating disorders in morbid obesity. Int J Eat Disord 2002; 31 (1): 97–100.
75. Sogg S, Mori DL. The Boston interview for gastric bypass: determining the psychological suitability of surgical candidates. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (3): 370–380.
76. Ferraro DR. Preparing patients for bariatric surgery – the clinical considerations. Clin Rev 2004; 14: 57–63.
77. Naef M, Sadowski C, deMarco D et al. Die vertikale Gastroplastiknach Mason zur Behandlung der morbiden Adipositas: Ergebnisseeiner prospektiven klinischen Studie. Chirurg 2000; 71: 448–455.
78. Wiesner W, Schöb O, Hauser RS et al. Adjustable laparoscopic gastric banding in patients with morbid obesity: radiographic management, results, and postoperative complications. Radiology 2000; 216 (2): 389–394.
79. Schumann R, Jones SB, Ortiz VE et al. Best practice recommendations for anesthetic perioperative care and pain management in weight loss surgery. Obes Res 2005; 13 (2): 254–266.
80. O’Keeffe T, Patterson EJ. Evidence supporting routine polysomnography before bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (1): 23–26.
81. Sugerman HJ, Fairman RP, Baron PL et al. Gastric surgery for respiratory insufficiency of obesity. Chest 1986; 90 (1): 81–86.
82. Sugerman HJ, Fairman RP, Sood RK et al. Long-term effects of gastric surgery for treating respiratory insufficiency of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55 (Suppl 2): 597S–601S.
83. Miller K, Hell E. Laparoscopic surgical concepts of morbid obesity. Langenbecks Arch Surg 2003; 388 (6): 375–384.
84. Gonzalez R, Bowers SP, Venkatesh KR et al. Preoperative factors predictive of complicated postoperative management after Roux en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Surg Endosc 2003; 17 (12): 1900–1914.
85. Frey WC, Pilcher J. Obstructive sleep-related breathing disorders in patients evaluated for bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2003; 13 (5): 676–683.
86. Sharaf RN, Weinshel EH, Bini EJ et al. Radiologic assessment of the upper gastrointestinal tract: does it play an important preoperativerole in bariatric surgery? Obes Surg 2004; 14 (3): 313–317.
87. Jaffin BW, Knoepflmacher P, Greenstein R. High prevalence of a symptomatic esophageal motility disorders among morbidly obese patients. Obes Surg 1999; 9 (4): 390–395.
88. Frigg A, Peterli R, Zynamon A et al. Radiologic and endoscopic evaluation for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: preoperative and follow-up. Obes Surg 2001; 11 (5): 594–599.
89. Greenstein RJ, Nissan A, Jaffin B. Esophageal anatomy and functionin laparoscopic gastric restrictive bariatric surgery: implications for patient selection. Obes Surg 1998; 8 (2): 199–206.
90. Verset D, Houben JJ, Gay F et al. The place of upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy before and after vertical banded gastroplasty for morbid obesity. Dig Dis Sci 1997; 42 (11): 2333–2337.
91. Saltzman E, Anderson W, Apovian CM et al. Criteria for patient selection and multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment of the weight loss surgery patient. Obes Res 2005; 13 (2): 234–243.
92. Sogg S, Mori DL. Psychosocial evaluation for bariatric surgery: the Boston interview and opportunities for intervention. Obes Surg 2009; 19 (3): 369–377. doi: 10.1007/s11695-008-9676-7.
93. Heinberg LJ, Ashton K, Windover A. Moving beyond dichotomous psychological evaluation: the Cleveland Clinic behavioral rating system for weight loss surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2010; 6 (2): 185–190. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2009.10.004.
94. Greenberg I, Sogg S, Perna FM. Behavioral and psychological carein weight loss surgery: best practice update. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17 (5): 880–884. doi: 10.1038/oby.2008.571.
95. Mahony D. Psychological assessments of bariatric surgery patients. Development, reliability, and exploratory factor analysis of the PsyBari. Obes Surg 2011; 21 (9): 1395–1406. doi: 10.1007/s11695-010-0108-0.
96. Fabricatore AN, Crerand CE, Wadden TA et al. How do mental health professionals evaluate candidates for bariatric surgery? Survey results. Obes Surg 2005; 16 (5): 567–573.
97. Peacock JC, Zizzi SJ. An assessment of patient behavioral requirements pre-and post-surgery at accredited weight loss surgical centers. Obes Surg 2011; 21 (12): 1950–1957. doi: 10.1007/s11695-011-0366-5.
98. Bauchowitz AU, Gonder-Frederick LA, Olbrisch ME et al. Psychosocial evaluation of bariatric surgery candidates: a survey of present practices. Psychosom Med 2005; 67 (5): 825–832.
99. van Hout GC, Jakimowicz JJ, Fortuin FA et al. Weight loss and eating behavior following vertical banded gastroplasty. Obes Surg 2007; 17 (9): 1226–1234.
100. Kofman MD, Lent MR, Swencionis C. Maladaptive eating paterns, quality of life, and weight outcomes following gastric bypass: results of an internet survey. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010; 18 (10): 1938–1943. doi: 10.1038/oby.2010.27.
101. Rutledge T, Groez LM, Savu M. Psychiatric factors and weight loss patterns following gastric bypass surgery in a veteran population. Obes Surg 2011; 21 (1): 29–35. doi: 10.1007/s11695-009-9923-6.
102. Odom J, Zalesin KC, Washington TL. Behavioral predictors of weight regain after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2010; 20 (3): 349–356. doi: 10.1007/s11695-009-9895-6.
103. Colles SL, Dixon JB, O’Brien PE. Grazing and loss of control related to eating: two high-risk factors following bariatric surgery. Behav Psychol Obes 2008; 16 (3): 615–622. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.101.
104. Kruseman M, Leimgruber A, Zumbach F et al. Dietary, weight, and psychological changes among patients with obesity, 8 years aftergastric bypass. J Am Diet Assoc 2010; 110 (4): 527–534. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.12.028.
105. de Zwaan M, Mitchell JE, Howell LM et al. Characteristics of morbidly obese patients before gastric bypass surgery. Compr Psychiatry 2003; 44 (5): 428–434.
106. Hsu LK, Benotti PN, Dwyer J et al. Nonsurgical factors that influence the outcome of bariatric surgery: a review. Psychosom Med 1998; 60 (3): 338–346.
107. Guisado Macias JA, Vaz Leal FJ. Psychopathological differences between morbidly obese binge eaters and non-binge eaters after bariatric surgery. Eat Weight Disord 2003; 8 (4): 315–318.
108. Sabbioni ME, Dickson MH, Eychmueller S et al. Intermediate results of health related quality of life after vertical banded gastroplasty. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26 (2): 277–280.
109. Toussi R, Fujioka K, Coleman KJ. Pre-and postsurgery behavioral compliance, patient health, and postbariatric surgical weight loss. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2009; 17 (5): 966–1002. doi: 10.1038/oby.2008.628.
110. Sarwer DB, Wadden TA, Fabricatore AN. Psychosocial and behavioral aspects of bariatric surgery. Obes Res 2005; 13 (4): 639–648.
111. de Zwaan M, Hilbert A, Swan-Kremeier L et al. Comprehensive interview assessment of eating behavior 18–35 months after gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2010; 6 (1): 79–85. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2009.08.011.
112. White MA, Kalarchian M, Masheb RM et al. Loss of control overeating predicts outcomes in bariatric surgery patients: a porspective, 24-month follow-up study. J Clin Psychiatry 2010; 71 (2): 175–184. doi: 10.4088/JCP.08m04328blu.
113. Sarwer DB, Dilks RJ, West-Smith L. Dietary intake and eating behavior after bariatric surgery: threats to weight loss maintenance and strategies for success. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2011; 7 (5): 644–651. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2011.06.016.
114. Ashton K, Heinberg L, Windover A et al. Positive response to binge eating intervention enhances postsurgical weight loss and adherence. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2011; 7 (3): 315–320. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2010.12.005.
115. Korner J, Inabnet W, Febres G et al. Prospective study of gut hormone and metabolic changes after adjustable gastric banding and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009; 33 (7): 786–795. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2009.79.
116. Laferrere B, Teixeira J, McGinty J et al. Effect of weight loss by gastric bypass surgery versus hypocaloric diet on glucose and incretin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93 (7): 2479–2485. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-2851.
117. Bose M, Teixeira J, Olivan B et al. Weight loss and incretin responsiveness improve glucose control independently after gastric bypass surgery. J Diabetes 2010; 2 (1): 47–55. doi: 10.1111/j.1753-0407.2009.00064.x.
118. Vidal J, Ibarzabal A, Romero F et al. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic syndrome following sleeve gastrectomy in severely obese subjects. Obes Surg 2008; 18 (9): 1077–1082. doi: 10.1007/s11695-008-9547-2.
119. Leslie DB, Dorman RB, Serrot FJ et al. Efficacy of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass compared to medically managed controls in meeting the American Diabetes Association composite end point goals for management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obes Surg 2012; 22: 367–374. doi: 10.1007/s11695-011-0494-y.
120. Carlsson LM, Peltonen M, Ahlin S et al. Bariatric surgery and prevention of type 2 diabetes in Swedish obese subjects. N Engl JMed 2012; 367 (8): 695–704. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1112082.
121. Arterburn DE, Bogart A, Sherwood NE et al. A multisite study of long-term remis-sion and relapse of type 2 diabetes mellitus following gastric bypass. Obes Surg 2013; 23 (1): 93–102. doi: 10.1007/s11695-012-0802-1.
122. Laferrere B. Effect of gastric bypass surgery on the incretins. Diabetes Metab 2009; 35 (6 Pt 2): 513–517. doi: 10.1016/S1262-3636 (09) 73458-5.
123. Kashyap SR, Daud S, Kelly KR et al. Acute effects of gastric bypass versus gastric restrictive surgery on beta-cell function and insulinotropic hormones in severely obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Int J Obes (Lond) 2010; 34 (3): 462–471. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2009.254.
124. Peterli R, Wolnerhanssen B, Peters T et al. Improvement in glucose metabolism after bariatric surgery: comparison of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg 2009; 250 (2): 234–241. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181ae32e3.
125. Mingrone G, Castagneto-Gissey L. Mechanisms of early improvement/resolution of type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery. Diabetes Metab 2009; 35 (6 Pt 2): 518–523. doi: 10.1016/S1262-3636 (09) 73459-7.
126. Briatore L, Salani B, Andraghetti G et al. Beta-cell function improvement after biliopancreatic diversion in subjects with type 2 diabetes and morbid obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010; 18 (5): 932–936. doi: 10.1038/oby.2010.28.
127. Briatore L, Salani B, Andraghetti G et al. Restoration of acute insulin response in T2DM subjects 1 month after biliopancreatic diversion. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008; 16 (1): 77–81. doi: 10.1038/oby.2007.9.
128. Talebpour M, Amoli BS. Laparoscopic total gastric vertical plication in morbid obesity. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2007; 17 (6): 793–798.
129. Skrekas G, Antiochos K, Stafyla VK. Laparoscopic gastric greater curvature plication: results and complications in a series of 135 patients. Obes Surg 2011; 21 (11): 1657–1663. doi: 10.1007/s11695-011-0499-6.
130. Ramos A, Galvao Neto M, Galvao M et al. Laparoscopic greater curvature plication: initial results of an alternative restrictive bariatric procedure. Obes Surg 2010; 20 (7): 913–918. doi: 10.1007/s11695-010-0132-0.
131. Brethauer SA, Harris JL, Kroh M et al. Laparoscopic gastric plication for treatment of severe obesity. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2011; 7 (1): 15–22. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2010.09.023.
132. NICE. Laparoscopic gastric plication for the treatment of severe obesity. Interventional procedures guidance (IPG432). [online]. Available from: www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg432.
133. Fried M, Dolezalova K, Buchwald JN et al. Laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP) for the treatment of morbid obesity in a series of 244 patiens. Obes Surg 2012; 22 (8): 1298–1307. doi: 10.1007/s11695-012-0684-2.
134. Sánchez-Pernaute A, Rubio MA, Pérez-Aguirre ME et al. Single anastomosis duodenoileal bypass with sleeve gastrec-tomy: metabolic improvement and weight loss in first 100 patients. Surg ObesRelat Dis 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2012.07.018.
135. Reoch J, Mottillo S, Shimony A et al. Safety of laparoscopic vs open bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Surg 2011; 146 (11): 1314–1322. doi: 10.1001/archsurg.2011.270.
136. Kelly J, Tarnoff M, Shikora S et al. Best practice recommendations for surgical care in weight loss surgery. Obes Res 2005; 13 (2): 227–233.
137. Brolin RE. Bariatric surgery and long-term control of morbid obesity. JAMA 2002; 288 (22): 2793–2796.
138. Murr MM, Balsiger BM, Kennedy FP et al. Malabsorptive procedures for severe obesity: comparison of pancreaticobiliary bypass and very very long limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. J Gastrointest Surg 1999; 3 (6): 607–612.
139. Scopinaro N, Gianetta E, Adami GF et al. Biliopancreatic diversionfor obesity at eighteen years. Surgery 1996; 119 (3): 261–268.
140. Scopinaro N, Marinari GM, Camerini G. Laparoscopic standard biliopancreatic diversion: technique and preliminary results. Obes Surg 2002; 12 (3): 362–365.
141. Howard L, Malone M, Michalek A et al. Gastric bypass and vertical banded gastroplasty – a prospective randomized comparison and 5-year follow-up. Obes Surg 1995; 5 (1): 55–60.
142. van Dielen FM, Soeters PB, de Brauw LM et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band-ing versus open vertical banded gastroplasty: a rospective randomized trial. Obes Surg 2005; 15 (9): 1292–1298.
143. Brolin RE, Kenler HA, Gorman JH et al. Long-limb gastric bypass in the superobese. A prospective randomized study. Ann Surg 1992; 215 (4): 387–395.
144. Podnos YD, Jimenez JC, Wilson SE  et al. Complications after laparoscopic gastric bypass: a review of 3464 cases. Arch Surg 2003; 138 (9): 957–961.
145. Perugini RA, Mason R, Czerniach DR et al. Predictors of complication and suboptimal weight loss after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a series of 188 patients. Arch Surg 2003; 138 (5): 541–545.
146. Nguyen NT, Rivers R, Wolfe BM. Factors associated with operative outcomes in laparoscopic gastric bypass. J Am Coll Surg 2003; 197 (4): 548–555.
147. Ren CJ, Weiner M, Allen JW. Favorable early results of gastric banding for morbid obesity: the American experience. Surg Endosc 2004; 18 (3): 543–546.
148. Rubenstein RB. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding at a US center with up to 3-year follow-up. Obes Surg 2002; 12 (3): 380–384.
149. O’Brien PE, Dixon JB, Brown W et al. The laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (Lap-Band): a prospective study of medium-term effects on weight, health and quality of life. Obes Surg 2002; 12 (5): 652–660.
150. Spivak H, Favretti F. Avoiding postoperative complications with the LAP-BAND system. Am J Surg 2002; 184 (6B): 31S–37S.
151. Belachew M, Belva PH, Desaive C. Long-term results of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for treatment of morbid obesity. Obes Surg 2002; 12 (4): 564–568.
152. DeMaria EJ, Sugerman HJ. A critical look at laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding for surgical treatment of morbid obesity: does it measure up? Surg Endosc 2000; 14 (8): 697–699.
153. Favretti F, Cadiere GB, Segato G et al. Laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (Lap-Band): how to avoid complications. Obes Surg 1997; 7 (4): 352–358.
154. Fried M, Miller K, Kormanova K. Literature review of comparative studies of complications with Swedish band and Lap-Band. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (2): 256–260.
155. Fried M, Peskova M, Kasalicky M. Assessment of the outcome of laparoscopic nonadjustable gastric banding and stoma adjustable gastric anding: surgeon’s and patient’s view. Obes Surg 1998; 8 (1): 45–48.
156. Hall JC, Watts JM, O’Brien PE et al. Gastric surgery for morbid obesity. The Adelaide Study. Ann Surg 1990; 211 (4): 419–427.
157. Laws HL, Piantadosi S. Superior gastric reduction procedure for morbid obesity: a prospective, randomized trial. Ann Surg 1981; 193 (3): 334–340.
158. Bajardi G, Ricevuto G, Mastrandrea G et al. Surgical treatment of morbid obesity with biliopancreatic diversion and gastric banding: report on an 8-year experience involving 235 cases. Ann Chir 2000; 125 (2): 155–162.
159. Chapman AE, Kiroff G, Game P et al. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding in the treatment of obesity: a systematic literature review. Surgery 2004; 135 (3): 326–351.
160. Dolan K, Hatzifotis M, Newbury L et al. A comparison of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and biliopancreatic diversion in superobesity. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (2): 165–169.
161. Scopinaro N, Adami GF, Papadia FS  et al. Effects of biliopancreatic diversion on type 2 diabetes in patients with BMI 25 to 35. Ann Surg 2011; 253 (4): 699–703. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e318203ae44.
162. Ciangura C, Bouillot JL, Lloret-Lina-res C et al. Dynamics ofchange in total and regional body composition after gastric bypassin obese patients. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010; 18: 760–765. doi: 10.1038/oby.2009.348.
163. ASMBS. Bariatric surgery: ASBS guidelines. [online]. Available from: www.lapsurgery.com.
164. Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons. Guidelines for institutions granting bariatric privileges utilizing laparoscopic techniques. Society of American Gastrointestinal Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) and the SAGES Bariatric Task Force. Surg Endosc 2003; 17 (12): 2037–2040.
165. Flum DR, Dellinger EP. Impact of gastric bypass operation on survival: a population-based analysis. J Am Coll Surg 2004; 199 (4): 543–551.
166. Schauer P, Ikramuddin S, Hamad G et al. The learning curve for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is 100 cases. Surg Endosc 2003; 17 (2): 212–215.
167. Wittgrove AC, Clark GW. Laparoscopic gastric bypass, Roux-en-Y-500 patients: technique and results with 3–60 months follow-up. Obes Surg 2000; 10 (3): 233–239.
168. Higa KD, Boone KB, Ho T et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: technique and preliminary results of our first 400 patients. Arch Surg 2000; 135 (9): 1029–1033.
169. Courcoulas A, Schuchert M, Gatti G et al. The relationship of surgeon and hospital volume to outcome after gastric bypass surgery in Pennsylvania: a 3-year summary. Surgery 2003; 134 (4): 613–623.
170. Sarwer DB, Moore RH, Spitzer JC et al. A pilot study investigating the efficacy of postoperative dietary counseling to improve outcomes after bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2012; 8 (5): 561–568. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2012.02.010.
171. Kulick D, Hark L, Deen D. The bariatric surgery patient: a growing role for registered dietitians. J Am Diet Assoc 2010; 110 (4): 593–599. doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2009.12.021.
172. Ziegler O, Sirveaux MA, Brunaud L et al. Medical follow up after bariatric surgery: nutritional and drug issues. General recommendations for the prevention and treatment of nutritional deficiencies. Diabetes Metab 2009; 35 (6 Pt 2): 544–557. doi: 10.1016/S1262-3636 (09) 73464-0.
173. Faria SL. Dietary protein intake and bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2011; 21 (11): 1798–1805. doi: 10.1007/s11695-011-0441-y.
174. Raftopoulos I, Bernstein B, O’Hara K et al. Protein intake compliance with morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery and its effect on weight loss and biochecmical parameters. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2011; 7 (6): 733–742. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2011.07.008.
175. Billy H, Okerson T. Changes in body composition following gastric bypass or gastric banding. Presented at: AACE 21st Annual Scientific and Clinical Congress, May 23–27 2012, Philadephia PA. Abstract 1315.
176. BavarescoM, Paganini S, Pereira Lima T et al. Nutritional course of patients submitted to bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2010; 20 (6): 716–721. doi: 10.1007/s11695-008-9721-6.
177. Andreu A, Moize V, Rodriguez L et al. Protein intake, body composition, and protein status following bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2010; 20 (11): 1509–1515. doi: 10.1007/s11695-010-0268-y.
178. Moizé VL, Pi-Sunyer X, Mochari H et al. Nutritional pyramid for post-gastric bypass patients. Obes Surg 2010; 20 (8): 1133–1141. doi: 10.1007/s11695-010-0160-9.
179. Padwal R, Brocks D, Sharma AM.  A systematic review of drug absorption following bariatric surgery and its theoretical implications. Obes Rev 2010; 11 (1): 41–50. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2009.00614.x.
180. Miller AD, Smith KM. Medication and nutrient administration considerations after bariatric surgery. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2006; 63 (19): 1852–1857.
181. Ceppa EP, Ceppa DP, Omotosho PA et al. Algorithm to diagnose etiology of hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: case series and review of the literature. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2012; 8 (5): 641–647. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2011.08.008.
182. Cui Y, Elahi D, Andersen DK. Advances in the etiology and management of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after Roux-en-Ygastric bypass. J Gastrointest Surg 2011; 15 (10): 1879–1888. doi: 10.1007/s11605-011-1585-8.
183. Bernard B, Kline GA, Service FJ. Hypo-glycemia following upper gastrointestinal surgery: case report and review of the literature. BMC Gastroenterol 2010; 10: 77–80. doi: 10.1186/1471-230X-10-77.
184. Spanakis E, Gragnoli C. Successful medical management of status post-Roux-en-Y-gastric-bypass hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Obes Surg 2009; 19 (9): 1333– 1334. doi: 10.1007/s11695-009-9888-5.
185. Moreira RO, Moreira RB, Machado NA et al. Post-prandial hypoglycemia after bariatric surgery: pharmacological treatment with verapamil and acarbose. Obes Surg 2008; 18 (12): 1618–1621. doi: 10.1007/ s11695-008-9569-9.
186. Geerts WH, Bergqvist D, Pineo GF et al. Prevention of venoust hromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th Edition). Chest 2008; 133 (6 Suppl): 381S–453S. doi: 10.1378/chest.08-0656.
187. Magee CJ, Barry J, Javed S et al. Extended thromboprophylaxis reduces incidence of postoperative venous throm-boembolism in laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2010; 6 (3): 322–325. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2010.02.046.
188. Raftopoulos I, Martindale C, Cronin A et al. The effect of extendedpost-discharge chemical thromboprophylaxis on venous thromboembolism rates after bariatric surgery: a prospective comparison trial. Surg Endosc 2008; 22 (11): 2384–2391. doi: 10.1007/s00464-008-0031-9.
189. Winegar DA, Sherif B, Pate V et al. Venous thromboembolism after bariatric surgery performed by Bariatric surgery center of excellence participants: analysis of the Bariatric outcomes longitudinal database. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2011; 7 (2): 181–188. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2010.12.008.
190. ASMBS Clinical Issues Committee. ASMBS Guideline on the prevention and detection of gastrointestinal leak after gastric bypass including the role of imaging and surgical exploration. Surg Obes Relat Dis 2009; 5 (3): 293–296. doi: 10.1016/j.soard.2009.02.002.
191. Warschkow R, Tarantino I, Folie P et al. C-reactive protein 2 days after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery reliably indicates leaks andmoderately predicts morbidity.  J Gastrointest Surg 2012; 16 (6): 1128–1135. doi: 10.1007/s11605-012-1882-x.
192. Lyass S, Khalili TM, Cunneen S et al. Radiological studies after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: routine or selective? Am Surg 2004; 70 (10): 918–921.
193. Carussi LR, Turner MA, Conklin RC et al. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity: evaluation of postoperative extraluminal leaks with upper gastrointestinal series. Radiology 2006; 238 (1): 119–127.
194. Shen R, Dugay G, Rajaram K et al. Impact of patient follow-up on weight loss after bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (4): 514–519.
195. Favretti F, O’Brien PE, Dixon JB. Patient management after LAPBAND placement. Am J Surg 2002; 184 (6B): 38S–41S.
196. Busetto L, Pisent C, Segato G et al. The influence of a new timing strategy of band adjustment on the vomiting frequency and the food consumption of obese women operated with laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding (LAP-BAND). Obes Surg 1997; 7 (6): 505–512.
197. Rabkin RA, Rabkin JM, Metcalf B et al. Nutritional markers following duodenal switch for morbid obesity. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (1): 84–90.
198. Ledikwe JH, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC et al. Nutritional risk assessment and obesity in rural older adults: a sex difference. Am J Clin Nutr 2003; 77 (3): 551–558.
199. Ledikwe JH, Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC et al. Dietary patterns of rural older adults are associated with weight and nutritional status. J Am Geriatr Soc 2004; 52 (4): 589–595.
200. MacLean LD, Rhode B, Shizgal HN. Nutrition after vertical banded gastroplasty. Ann Surg 1987; 206 (5): 555–563.
201. Hamoui N, Anthone G, Crookes PF. Calcium metabolism in the morbidly obese. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (1): 9–12.
202. Faintuch J, Matsuda M, Cruz ME et al. Severe proteincalorie malnutrition after bariatric procedures. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (2): 175–181.
203. Baltasar A, Serra C, Perez N et al. Clinical hepatic impairment after the duodenal switch. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (1): 77–83.
204. Boylan LM, Sugerman HJ, Driskell JA. Vitamin E, vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, and folate status of gastric bypass surgery patients. J Am Diet Assoc 1988; 88 (5): 579–585.
205. Cannizzo Jr F, Kral JG. Obesity surgery: a model of programmed under nutrition. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1998; 1 (4): 363–368.
206. Hamoui N, Kim K, Anthone G et al. The significance of elevated levels of parathyroid hormone in patients with morbid obesity before and after bariatric surgery. Arch Surg 2003; 138 (8): 891–897.
207. Skroubis G, Sakellaropoulos G, Pouggouras K et al. Comparison of nutritional deficiencies after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and after biliopancreatic diversion with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Obes Surg 2002; 12 (4): 551–558.
208. Slater GH, Ren CJ, Siegel N et al. Serum fat-soluble vitamin deficiency and abnormal calcium metabolism after malabsorptive bariatric surgery. J Gastrointest Surg 2004; 8 (1): 48–55.
209. Halverson JD. Micronutrient deficiencies after gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Am Surg 1986; 52 (11): 594–598.
210. Avinoah E, Ovnat A, Charuzi I. Nutritional status seven years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Surgery 1992; 111 (2): 137–142.
211. Brolin RE, Gorman RC, Milgrim LM  et al. Multivitamin prophylaxisin prevention of postgastric bypass vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Int J Obes 1991; 15 (10): 661–667.
212. Rhode BM, Arseneau P, Cooper BA et al. Vitamin B-12 deficiency after gastric surgery for obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1996; 63 (1): 103–109.
213. Schilling RF, Gohdes PN, Hardie GH. Vitamin B12 deficiency after gastric bypass surgery for obesity. Ann Intern Med 1984; 101 (4): 501–502.
214. Simon SR, Zemel R, Betancourt S  et al. Hematologic complications of gastric bypass for morbid obesity. South Med J 1989; 82 (9): 1108–1110.
215. Brolin RE, Gorman JH, Gorman RC et al. Are vitamin B12 and folate deficiency clinically important after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass? J Gastrointest Surg 1998; 2 (5): 436–442.
216. Halverson JD. Metabolic risk of obesity surgery and long term follow-up. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55 (Suppl 2): 602S–605S.
217. Goode LR, Brolin RE, Chowdhury HA et al. Bone and gastric bypass surgery: effects of dietary calcium and vitamin D. Obes Res 2004; 12 (1): 40–47.
218. Coates PS, Fernstrom JD, Fernstrom MH et al. Gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity leads to an increase in bone turnover and a decreasein bone mass. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89 (3): 1061–1065.
219. Shaker JL, Norton AJ, Woods MF et al. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteopenia in women following gastric exclusion surgery for obesity. Osteoporos Int 1991; 1 (3): 177–181.
220. Abu-Abeid S, Keidar A, Gavert N et al. The clinical spectrum of band erosion following laparoscopic adjustable silicone gastric banding for morbid obesity. Surg Endosc 2003; 17 (6): 861–863.
221. Jones Jr KB. Revisional bariatric surgery – safe and effective. Obes Surg 2001; 11 (2): 183–189.
222. Weber M, Muller MK, Michel JM et al. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, but not rebanding, should be proposed as rescue procedure for patients with failed laparoscopic gastric banding. Ann Surg 2003; 238: 827–833.
223. Dolan K, Fielding G. Biliopancreatic diversion following failure of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Surg Endosc 2004; 18 (1): 60–63.
224. Chevallier JM, Zinzindohoue F, Douard R et al. Complications after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding for morbid obesity: experience with 1,000 patients over 7 years. Obes Surg 2004; 14 (3): 407–414.
225. Iovino P, Angrisani L, Tremolaterra F et al. Abnormal esophageal acid exposure is common in morbidly obese patients and improves after a successful lap-band system implantation. Surg Endosc 2002; 16 (11): 1631–1635.
226. Niville E, Dams A. Late pouch dilation after laparoscopic adjustable gastric and esophagogastric banding: incidence, treatment, and outcome. Obes Surg 1999; 9 (4): 381–384.
227. Sanyal AJ, Sugerman HJ, Kellum JM et al. Stomal complications of gastric bypass: incidence and outcome of therapy. Am J Gastroenterol 1992; 87 (9): 1165–1169.
228. Weiner R, Theodoridou S, Weiner S. Failure of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy – further procedure? Obes Facts 2011;  4 (Suppl 1): 42–46. doi: 10.1159/000327343.
229. Barba CA, Butensky MS, Lorenzo M et al. Endoscopic dilation of gastroesophageal anastomosis stricture after gastric bypass. Surg Endosc 2003; 17 (3): 416–420.
230. Schauer PR, Ikrammudin S, Gourash W et al. Outcomes after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity. Ann Surg 2000; 232 (4): 515–529.
231. Spaulding L. Treatment of dilated gastrojejunostomy with sclerotherapy. Obes Surg 2003; 13 (2): 254–257.
232. Anthone GJ, Lord RV, DeMeester TR et al. The duodenal switch operation for the treatment of morbid obesity. Ann Surg 2003; 238 (4): 618–627.
233. Bloomberg RD, Urbach DR. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for severe gastroesophageal reflux after vertical banded gastroplasty. Obes Surg 2002; 12 (3): 408–411.
234. Cowan Jr GS. Bariatric surgical utterances: need they be dogmatic? Obes Surg 1999; 9 (1): 3–4.
235. Cowan GS Jr. Obligations of the bariatric surgeon. Obes Surg 2000; 10 (6): 498–501.

Kreditovaný autodidaktický test